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Tatyana
04-29-2009, 08:09 PM
18225457 Medline 20080225.
Title
The many faces of testosterone.
Source
Clinical interventions in aging, {Clin-Interv-Aging}, 2007, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 567-76, 93 refs, ISSN: 1176-9092.

Author(s)
Bain-Jerald (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/14001/06d2b502/).
Author affiliation
Department of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. j.bain@utoronto.ca (j.bain@utoronto.ca).

Abstract
Testosterone is more than a male sex hormone. It is an important contributor to the robust metabolic functioning of multiple bodily systems.

The abuse of anabolic steroids by athletes over the years has been one of the major detractors from the investigation and treatment of clinical states that could be caused by or related to male hypogonadism.

The unwarranted fear that testosterone therapy would induce prostate cancer has also deterred physicians form pursuing more aggressively the possibility of hypogonadism in symptomatic male patients.

In addition to these two mythologies, many physicians believe that testosterone is bad for the male heart. The classical anabolic agents, 17-alkylated steroids, are, indeed, potentially harmful to the liver, to insulin action to lipid metabolism. These substances, however, are not testosterone, which has none of these adverse effects.

The current evidence, in fact, strongly suggests that testosterone may be cardioprotective. There is virtually no evidence to implicate testosterone as a cause of prostate cancer. It may exacerbate an existing prostate cancer, although the evidence is flimsy, but it does not likely cause the cancer in the first place.

Testosterone has stimulatory effects on bones, muscles, erythropoietin, libido, mood and cognition centres in the brain, penile erection. It is reduced in metabolic syndrome and diabetes and therapy with testosterone in these conditions may provide amelioration by lowering LDL cholesterol, blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance.

The best measure is bio-available testosterone which is the fraction of testosterone not bound to sex hormone binding globulin. Several forms of testosterone administration are available making compliance much less of an issue with testosterone replacement therapy.

Accession number & update
01401694 Medline R 20080311.
Title
A pilot study of anabolic steroids in elderly patients with hip fractures.
Source
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, {J-Am-Geriatr-Soc}, Nov 1992, vol. 40, no. 11, p. 1105-11, ISSN: 0002-8614.
Author(s)
Sloan-J-P (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/15001/382db467/), Wing-P (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/15001/db42ff61/), Dian-L (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/15001/83b5c449/), Meneilly-G-S (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch4/15001/ebb31163/).
Author affiliation
Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of the anabolic steroid nandrolone in elderly patients with hip fractures.

DESIGN: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: The orthopedic ward of a university teaching hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: 29 frail elderly females with hip fractures.

INTERVENTION: Subjects received nandrolone 2 mg/kg (n = 15) or placebo (n = 14) by weekly injection for 4 weeks or until discharge.

MEASURES: Baseline functional status was assessed by the Lawton-Brody ADL and IADL. Hemoglobin, transferrin, thyroid-binding prealbumin, albumin, liver function tests, creatinine, weight, MAMC, bioelectric impedance, standard anthropometrics and grip strength were measured at baseline and weekly intervals. Rehabilitation parameters and length of stay were recorded.

RESULTS: The placebo and nandrolone groups were similar in age, although the control group had slightly higher baseline ADL scores. There was no difference between groups in biochemical parameters, anthropometrics, body composition, grip strength, rehabilitation end points or length of stay. One subject in the nandrolone group had a doubling of AST and was withdrawn from the study.

CONCLUSIONS: Nandrolone can be given safely to frail elderly subjects with hip fractures but is likely to be of minimal benefit at the doses we employed.


Accession number & update
05901929 Medline R 20080311.
Title
Chronic renal insufficiency treated with anabolic steroids: effects on acid-base balance, protein metabolism and hematopoiesis.
Source
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, {J-Am-Geriatr-Soc}, Jan 1966, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 21-32, ISSN: 0002-8614.

Accession number & update
12043767 Medline R 20080211.
Title
Positive effects of anabolic steroids, vitamin D and calcium on muscle mass, bone mineral density and clinical function after a hip fracture. A randomised study of 63 women.
Source
The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume, {J-Bone-Joint-Surg-Br}, May 2002, vol. 84, no. 4, p. 497-503, ISSN: 0301-620X.
Author(s)
Hedström-M (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/18001/7065dbea/), Sjöberg-K (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/18001/44df776a/), Brosjö-E (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/18001/27d24009/), Aström-K (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch4/18001/f933606c/), Sjöberg-H (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch5/18001/2818ac35/), Dalén-N (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch6/18001/c629d279/).
Author affiliation
Department of Orthopaedics, Karolinska Institute and Danderyd Hospital, Sweden.
Abstract
A total of 63 women who had an operation for a fracture of the hip was randomly allocated to one year of treatment either with anabolic steroids, vitamin D and calcium (anabolic group) or with calcium only (control group).

The thigh muscle volume was measured by quantitative CT. The bone mineral density of the hip, femur and tibia was assessed by quantitative CT and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and of the heel by quantitative ultrasound.

Quantitative CT showed that the anabolic group did not lose muscle volume during the first 12 months whereas the control group did (p<0.01). There was less bone loss in the proximal tibia in the anabolic group than in the control group.

The speed of gait and the Harris hip score were significantly better in the anabolic group after six and 12 months. Anabolic steroids, even in this moderate dose, given in combination with vitamin D and calcium had a beneficial effect on muscle volume, bone mineral density and clinical function in this group of elderly women.


Accession number & update
03865484 Medline R 20080211.
Title
Anabolic steroids in aplastic anemia.
Source
Acta endocrinologica. Supplementum, {Acta-Endocrinol-Suppl-Copenh}, 1985, vol. 271, p. 87-96, ISSN: 0300-9750.
Author(s)
Gardner-F-H (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/21001/2cf1484f/).
Abstract
Despite the successful recovery of young patients with aplastic anemia following bone marrow transplants, additional patients have had benefit from immune suppression therapy, predominantly antithymus globulin (ATG).

There exists a large residual pool of patients who have not been able to benefit from these modalities because of 1) lack of compatible siblings, 2) age, 3) duration of illness prior to diagnosis. Historically oral androstanes have been helpful in the treatment of chronic aplastic anemia.

The long-range survival in large cooperative groups of patients treated with androstanes have indicated that both severe and chronic aplastic anemia have had responses similar to immune suppressive therapy.

There is a need to have further investigations to seek the most effective anabolic agents. Many group studies have shortened treatment schedules when an erythropoietic response has been obtained, rather than continue therapy until the maximum platelet count is achieved. Such abbreviation of therapy may hasten a hematological relapse.

Clinics also should evaluate parenteral androstanes since they appear to be more hematopoietic. Also the investigation of different androstane metabolites, i.e. etiocholanolone, should be pursued to determined if a more effective stimulus of stem cell proliferation can be achieved.

In the recovery phase of the aplastic anemia patients treated with immune suppression or androstanes the peripheral blood reflects an altered proliferation of the marrow stem cell. The majority of these patients continue to have abnormalities in red cells (macrocytosis) and decreased platelet size.

Grant ID: DROI-CA-19997-02, Acronym: CA, Agency: United States NCI
Grant ID: RR-73, Acronym: RR, Agency: United States NCRR.


Accession number & update
16841196 Medline R 20071201.
Title
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nonsteroidal androgen receptor ligands.
Source
Pharmaceutical research, {Pharm-Res}, Aug 2006, vol. 23, no. 8, p. 1641-58, 77 refs, ISSN: 0724-8741.
Author(s)
Gao-Wenqing (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/30001/f0e8122c/), Kim-Juhyun (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/30001/eb7925d0/), Dalton-James-T (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/30001/6c67948f/).
Author affiliation
Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.
Abstract
Testosterone and structurally related anabolic steroids have been used to treat hypogonadism, muscle wasting, osteoporosis, male contraception, cancer cachexia, anemia, and hormone replacement therapy in aging men or age-related frailty; while antiandrogens may be useful for treatment of conditions like acne, alopecia (male-pattern baldness), hirsutism, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer.

However, the undesirable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of steroidal androgen receptor (AR) ligands limited their clinical use. Nonsteroidal AR ligands with improved pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties have been developed to overcome these problems.

This review focuses on the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and pharmacology of clinically used and emerging nonsteroidal AR ligands, including antagonists, agonists, and selective androgen receptor modulators.

Grant ID: R01 DK059800-07, Acronym: DK, Agency: United States NIDDK.

Accession number & update
17382481 Medline 20070801.
Title
Sex, drugs and sports: prostaglandins, epitestosterone and sexual development.
Source
Medical hypotheses, {Med-Hypotheses}, 2007 (epub: 23 Mar 2007), vol. 69, no. 4, p. 829-35, ISSN: 0306-9877.
Author(s)
Sanders-Bryan-K (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/33001/4dd09cf5/).
Author affiliation
College of Letters and Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. bksanders@cal.berkeley.edu (bksanders@cal.berkeley.edu).
Abstract
Amateau and McCarthy's findings published in Nature Neuroscience (June 2004) are noteworthy for suggesting a role for prostaglandins in sexual development.

However, evidence suggests that in manipulating PGE2, they unknowingly implicated 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.50), 3(or 17)alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.209) and their respective products, androsterone (ADT) and epitestosterone (EpiT), in the developmental masculinization of sex behavior.

EpiT is generally regarded as a hormonally inactive 17alpha-epimer of testosterone (T). In rats, the kidney is the primary site of EpiT formation, whereas in humans it originates from the gonads, with only a small contribution secreted by the adrenals.

Because the ratio of T to EpiT is nearly constant, it is presently used for assessing steroid abuse in competitive sports, where the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) considers a T/EpiT ratio >4 evidence of T doping.

Despite its central role in the detection of illict anabolic steroid use, our knowledge of factors effecting EpiT production is poor. Clues in the literature, however, reveal that prostaglandin-mediated processes, such as LHRH release, may influence its production.

Antimycotics, NSAIDs, and opioid analgesics used in sports medicine are all known to effect prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Primary PGs are potent inhibitors of ADT oxidation, while indomethacin, a prostaglandin blocker, powerfully inhibits 3alpha-HSD reduction and ADT oxidation. This is significant because ADT inhibits the oxidation of EpiT, and may modulate its antiandrogenic and neuroprotective effects.

It is hypothesized that the T/EpiT ratio is increased by COX-2 inhibitors and opiod analgesics, and decreased by antimycotics that do not impair testosterone biosynthesis. Given the devastating personal and career consequences that may result from false positive drug tests, substantive research on the effects of PGE2 manipulations on EpiT is warranted.

Accession number & update
17004353 Medline 20060901.
Title
Use of steroids for self-enhancement: an epidemiologic/societal perspective.
Source
The AIDS reader, {AIDS-Read}, Mar 2001, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 157-60, 6 refs, ISSN: 1053-0894.
Author(s)
Yesalis-C-E (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/46001/682d04bb/).
Author affiliation
Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, University Park, USA.
Abstract
Humans are basically competitive. For centuries, athletes have used various substances to enhance performance, increase strength, and prolong endurance. In the early 1940s, research indicating that testosterone improved a sense of well-being, appearance, and sexual performance led to the use of anabolic steroid hormones by a select few athletes.

Today, even among high school students, the use of androgenic steroid hormones is prevalent, with 1% to 2% of adolescent girls and 4% to 6% of adolescent boys having used an anabolic steroid at least once. An estimated 1 million people in the United States are current of former users of anabolic-androgenic steroid hormones, with men having a higher prevalence of use than women.

Androgenic steroid use has been associated with the use of other illicit drugs, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use. Nevertheless, anabolic-androgenic steroid hormones appear to have legitimate uses in certain patients.

In HIV-infected, hypogonadal men, anabolic steroid hormones optimize muscle strength and muscle mass when combined with resistance exercise. Although a large number of people have used these drugs for many years, no studies of the long-term health effects have been done.

However, when taken in supraphysiologic doses, these drugs are known to cause a wide range of acute adverse effects. When used in less then supraphysiologic doses in eugonadal or hypogonadal HIV-infected patients, these drugs reverse HIV-related hypogonadism, muscle wasting, and perhaps lipodystrophy.

Provided that the oral preparations are not used and patients are closely monitored, anabolic-androgenic steroid hormones offer HIV-infected patients a better quality of life and an improved sense of well-being.



Accession number & update
16235407 Medline R 20050101.
Title
Anabolic steroids for the treatment of weight loss in HIV-infected individuals.
Source
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online), {Cochrane-Database-Syst-Rev}, 2005 (epub), no. 4, p. CD005483, 106 refs, ISSN: 1469-493X.
Author(s)
Johns-K (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/60001/406634ad/), Beddall-M-J (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/60001/6ad1b8d0/), Corrin-R-C (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/60001/5d51683c/).
Author affiliation
Health Canada, Finance Building, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1H 5T1. Karen_Johns@hc-sc.gc.ca (Karen_Johns@hc-sc.gc.ca).
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Individuals with HIV infection often lose weight during the course of their disease. Furthermore, low serum concentrations of testosterone are common in individuals with HIV infection, particularly those with weight loss. Treatment of weight loss with anabolic steroids in HIV-infected individuals may be beneficial.

OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of anabolic steroids for the treatment of weight loss in adults with HIV infection.

SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, AIDSLINE, AIDSearch, EMBASE, CINAHL, Current Contents, and the National Library of Medicine Gateway Abstracts for controlled trials up to April 2005. We also searched the bibliographies of the identified studies and review the articles. In addition, pharmaceutical manufacturers of anabolic steroids were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials that compared the use of an anabolic steroid to placebo to treat weight loss in adults with HIV were included. Randomized controlled trials that compared the use of anabolic steroids to placebo for the treatment of weight loss in adults with HIV were selected. Change from baseline in lean body mass or in body weight was reported as on outcome measure.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently assessed the trials for quality of randomization, blinding, withdrawals, and adequacy of allocation concealment. For continuous data, weighted mean differences (WMD) were calculated. For dichotomous outcomes, risk differences, were calculated. Because of uncertainty as to whether consistent true effects exist in such different populations and treatments, the authors decided a priori to use random effects models for all outcomes.

MAIN RESULTS: Thirteen trials met the inclusion criteria. Two hundred ninety-four individuals randomized to anabolic steroid therapy and 238 individuals randomized to placebo were included in the analysis of efficacy for change from baseline in lean body mass. Three hundred forty-three individuals randomized to anabolic steroid and 286 randomized to placebo were included in the analysis of efficacy for change from baseline in body weight. The mean methodologic quality of the included studies was 4.1, of a maximum 5 points. Although significant heterogeneity was present for both outcomes, the average change in lean body mass was 1.3 kg (95% CI: 0.6, 2.0), while the average change in total body weight was 1.1 kg (95% CI: 0.3, 2.0). A total of eight deaths occurred during the treatment period; four in the anabolic steroid treatment groups and four in the placebo-treatment groups (risk difference 0.00, 95% CI -0.03, 0.03). The risk difference for withdrawals or discontinuations of study medication due to adverse events was 0.00 (95% CI: -0.02, 0.03).

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Although the results of the trials were heterogeneous, on average, the administration of anabolic steroids appeared to result in a small increase in both lean body mass and body weight as compared with placebo. While these results suggest that anabolic steroids may be useful in the treatment of weight loss in HIV infected individuals, due to limitations, treatment recommendations cannot be made. Further information is required regarding the long-term benefit and adverse effects of anabolic steroid use, the specific populations for which anabolic steroid therapy may be most beneficial, and the optimal regime. In addition, the correlation of improvement in lean body mass with more clinically relevant endpoints, such as physical functioning and survival, needs to be determined.


Accession number & update
15317640 Medline R 20040101.
Title
Anabolic steroid users' attitudes towards physicians.
Source
Addiction (Abingdon England), {Addiction}, Sep 2004, vol. 99, no. 9, p. 1189-94, ISSN: 0965-2140.
Author(s)
Pope-Harrison-G (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/83001/951d37ca/), Kanayama-Gen (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/83001/2f2bfc4e/), Ionescu-Pioggia-Martin (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/83001/f6d43edc/), Hudson-James-I (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch4/83001/01ddcb4d/).
Author affiliation
Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA. pope@mclean.harvard.edu (pope@mclean.harvard.edu).
Abstract
AIMS: To assess anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users' trust in the knowledge and advice of physicians. DESIGN: Interviews of AAS users and non-users.

SETTING: Research offices.

PARTICIPANTS: Eighty weight-lifters (43 AAS users, 37 non-users) recruited by advertisement in Massachusetts and Florida, USA.

MEASUREMENTS: Personal interviews and questionnaire responses, including subjects' ratings of physicians' knowledge regarding various health- and drug-related topics. AAS users also rated their level of trust in various sources of information about AAS.

FINDINGS: Both groups of subjects gave physicians high ratings on knowledge about general health, cigarette smoking, alcohol, and conventional illicit drugs, but gave physicians markedly and significantly lower ratings on knowledge about AAS. When rating sources of information on AAS, users scored physicians as no more reliable than their friends, Internet sites, or the person(s) who sold them the steroids. Forty percent of users trusted information on AAS from their drug dealers at least as much as information from any physician that they had seen, and 56% had never revealed their AAS use to any physician.

CONCLUSION: AAS users show little trust in physicians' knowledge about AAS, and often do not disclose their AAS use to physicians. These attitudes compromise physicians' ability to educate or treat AAS users. Physicians can respond to these problems by learning more about AAS and by maintaining a high index of suspicion when evaluating athletic male patients.


Accession number & update
15248788 Medline R 20040101.
Title
Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes.
Source
Sports medicine (Auckland N.Z.), {Sports-Med}, 2004, vol. 34, no. 8, p. 513-54, 297 refs, ISSN: 0112-1642.
Author(s)
Hartgens-Fred (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/84001/f666e029/), Kuipers-Harm (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/84001/0a876cb6/).
Author affiliation
Department of Surgery, Outpatient Clinic Sports Medicine, University Hospital Maastricht, and Sports Medicine Center Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. fhartgens@home.nl (fhartgens@home.nl).
Abstract
Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. They can exert strong effects on the human body that may be beneficial for athletic performance. A review of the literature revealed that most laboratory studies did not investigate the actual doses of AAS currently abused in the field. Therefore, those studies may not reflect the actual (adverse) effects of steroids.

The available scientific literature describes that short- term administration of these drugs by athletes can increase strength and bodyweight. Strength gains of about 5-20% of the initial strength and increments of 2-5 kg bodyweight, that may be attributed to an increase of the lean body mass, have been observed.

A reduction of fat mass does not seem to occur. Although AAS administration may affect erythropoiesis and blood haemoglobin concentrations, no effect on endurance performance was observed. Little data about the effects of AAS on metabolic responses during exercise training and recovery are available and, therefore, do not allow firm conclusions.

The main untoward effects of short- and long-term AAS abuse that male athletes most often self-report are an increase in sexual drive, the occurrence of acne vulgaris, increased body hair and increment of aggressive behaviour. AAS administration will disturb the regular endogenous production of testosterone and gonadotrophins that may persist for months after drug withdrawal. Cardiovascular risk factors may undergo deleterious alterations, including elevation of blood pressure and depression of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-, HDL2- and HDL3-cholesterol levels. In echocardiographic studies in male athletes, AAS did not seem to affect cardiac structure and function, although in animal studies these drugs have been observed to exert hazardous effects on heart structure and function. In studies of athletes, AAS were not found to damage the liver. Psyche and behaviour seem to be strongly affected by AAS. Generally, AAS seem to induce increments of aggression and hostility. Mood disturbances (e.g. depression, (hypo-) mania, psychotic features) are likely to be dose and drug dependent. AAS dependence or withdrawal effects (such as depression) seem to occur only in a small number of AAS users. Dissatisfaction with the body and low self-esteem may lead to the so-called 'reverse anorexia syndrome' that predisposes to the start of AAS use. Many other adverse effects have been associated with AAS misuse, including disturbance of endocrine and immune function, alterations of sebaceous system and skin, changes of haemostatic system and urogenital tract.

One has to keep in mind that the scientific data may underestimate the actual untoward effects because of the relatively low doses administered in those studies, since they do not approximate doses used by illicit steroid users.

The mechanism of action of AAS may differ between compounds because of variations in the steroid molecule and affinity to androgen receptors. Several pathways of action have been recognised. The enzyme 5-alpha-reductase seems to play an important role by converting AAS into dihydrotestosterone (androstanolone) that acts in the cell nucleus of target organs, such as male accessory glands, skin and prostate.

Other mechanisms comprises mediation by the enzyme aromatase that converts AAS in female sex hormones (estradiol and estrone), antagonistic action to estrogens and a competitive antagonism to the glucocorticoid receptors. Furthermore, AAS stimulate erythropoietin synthesis and red cell production as well as bone formation but counteract bone breakdown.

The effects on the cardiovascular system are proposed to be mediated by the occurrence of AAS-induced atherosclerosis (due to unfavourable influence on serum lipids and lipoproteins), thrombosis, vasospasm or direct injury to vessel walls, or may be ascribed to a combination of the different mechanisms. AAS-induced increment of muscle tissue can be attributed to hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibres, in which key roles are played by satellite cell number and ultrastructure, androgen receptors and myonuclei.

Copyright 2004 Adis Data Information BV.

Dr Pangloss
04-30-2009, 06:59 PM
great post up Tat.

maxititer
05-09-2009, 07:51 AM
drostanolon for example was used for treatment female breast cancer with very good results, as single drug.

Oxandrolone treatment in alcoholic hepatitis has yielded significant improvement in liver function. Quite contrary to common view that oral steroids toxic for liver. They do of course, but all depends ...

here is good review article on Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Therapy in the
Treatment of Chronic Diseases

link (http://a16.in/files/Anabolic_Androgenic_Steroid_Therapy.pdf)

DocGabri
05-14-2009, 11:51 AM
Bump for this thread

mopain4u
05-20-2009, 01:13 PM
that's a nice read.