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Tatyana
04-29-2009, 08:24 PM
Accession number & update
02708728 Medline R 20080624.
Title
Dietary influences on cardiovascular disease risk in anabolic steroid- using and nonusing bodybuilders.
Source
Journal of the American College of Nutrition, {J-Am-Coll-Nutr}, Apr 1989, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 109-19, ISSN: 0731-5724.
Author(s)
Kleiner-S-M (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/6/d80fd20a/), Calabrese-L-H (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/6/800802a1/), Fiedler-K-M (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/6/0b19fff1/), Naito-H-K (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch4/6/c32ebdab/), Skibinski-C-I (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch5/6/701184f1/).
Author affiliation
Department of Nutrition, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland.
Corporate author(s)
.
Abstract
Recent studies have described an association between high-risk lipoprotein profiles and anabolic steroid abuse by athletes. However, none have included a comprehensive evaluation of diet as a confounding variable.

The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associations with drug abuse, dietary patterns, and training regimens were evaluated in 18 steroid-using (SU) and 17 non-steroid-using (NSU; no history of drug use or greater than or equal to 1 year drug-free) male bodybuilders. CVD risk was also evaluated in 10 control males.

Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and HDL subfractions 2 and 3, low-density (LDL) and very-low-density (VLDL) lipoprotein cholesterol, apoproteins (APO) A-1 and B, and triglycerides (TG) were analyzed at baseline (greater than or equal to 6 months drug-free) and the peak of steroid self-administration in SU.

NSU were tested at similar times. Baseline CVD risk factor ratios (TC/HDL) were elevated (greater than 4.97) in 44% of SU and 24% of NSU. When baseline LDL and HDL values were compared to National Cholesterol Education Program CVD risk guidelines, these percentages stayed the same.

At the peak of steroid administration significant changes were observed in LDL (22% increase), HDL (63% decrease), HDL-2 (86% decrease), HDL-3 (54% decrease), and TC/HDL (85% increase). No similar measures were observed among NSU or controls. Diets of all bodybuilders were similar, and included a daily intake of 5739 (+/- 2500) kcal, 324 (+/- 163) g protein, 637 (+/- 259) g carbohydrate, 214 (+/- 109) g fat, 5 (+/- 8) g alcohol, 1413 (+/-1151) mg cholesterol, and a P/S ratio of 0.6 (+/- 0.3).

Significant relationships between dietary fats and serum lipids were observed in the NSU. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were correlated with TG and VLDL (r = 0.69; p = 0.01), and TC/HDL (r = 0.06; p = 0.04). Total fats were correlated with TG (r = 0.57; p = 0.05), HDL-3 (r = -0.62; p = 0.04), and VLDL (r = 0.57; p = 0.05), and saturated fats with HDL-3 (r = -0.59; p = 0.055). Diet was moderately associated with lipoproteins in SU, but steroids had a much greater influence on CVD risk. Despite disease promoting diets NSU had relatively average CVD risk that may be attributed to protective effects of rigorous training.


Accession number & update
07974982 Medline R 20080128.
Title
The Gordon Wilson Lecture. Regulation of thromboxane A2 receptors by testosterone: implications for steroid abuse and cardiovascular disease.
Source
Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, {Trans-Am-Clin-Climatol-Assoc}, 1994, vol. 105, p. 95-103, ISSN: 0065-7778.
Author(s)
Halushka-P-V (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/23001/1673b239/), Masuda-A (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/23001/50943b57/), Matsuda-K (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/23001/1441e42e/).
Author affiliation
Second Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo Medical College, Japan.
Abstract
Thromboxane A2 (TXA2), a platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor, has been implicated as a potential pathophysiologic mediator of a wide variety of cardiovascular diseases.

It is well established that men are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease compared to premenopausal females.

Abuse of androgenic/anabolic steroids has been associated with thrombotic cardiovascular diseases in young male athletes.

These observations along with several others have led to the hypothesis that testosterone may regulate the expression of TXA2 receptors. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC) and human erythroleukemia cells (HEL), a megakaryocyte-like cell, were incubated with testosterone. TXA2 receptor affinity (Kd) and density (Bmax) were determined via equilibrium binding experiments using the radiolabeled TXA2 mimetic (125I)-BOP.

Testosterone significantly increased the Bmax without any significant change in Kd. Hydroxyflutamide (1 microM), an androgen receptor antagonist, completely blocked the effect of testosterone.

Dihydrotestosterone, the active metabolite of testosterone also increased Bmax in a concentration-dependent manner and was more potent than testosterone.

These observations along with several others are consistent with the notion that androgenic steroids may regulate the expression of functional TXA2 receptors in HEL and RASMC. These results raise the possibility that the increase in TXA2 receptor density induced by testosterone may contribute to its thrombotic potential in cardiovascular diseases.


Grant ID: HL36838, Acronym: HL, Agency: United States NHLBI.

Accession number & update
17549658 Medline 20070701.
Title
Cardiac tissue Doppler in steroid users.
Source
International journal of sports medicine, {Int-J-Sports-Med}, Aug 2007 (epub: 01 Jun 2007), vol. 28, no. 8, p. 638-43, ISSN: 0172-4622.
Author(s)
Krieg-A (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/32001/10c60333/), Scharhag-J (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/32001/3a043666/), Albers-T (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/32001/4dd93625/), Kindermann-W (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch4/32001/f4cdf986/), Urhausen-A (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch5/32001/2c6447e9/).
Author affiliation
Institute of Sports and Preventive Medicine, University of Saarland, Saarbruecken, Germany. a.krieg@mx.uni-saarland.de (a.krieg@mx.uni-saarland.de).
Abstract
Anabolic steroids cause a variety of side effects, among them a slight concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. The objective of the present study was to clarify if they also induce alterations in left ventricular function.

14 male body builders with substantial intake of anabolic steroids (users) were examined by standard echocardiography and cardiac tissue Doppler imaging. They were compared to 11 steroid- free strength athletes (non-users) and 15 sedentary control subjects. Users showed an increased left ventricular muscle mass index.

The ratio of peak transmitral blood flow velocities during early diastolic filling and atrial contraction did not differ between groups (users: 1.4 +/- 0.3; non-users: 1.7 +/- 0.5; controls: 1.4 +/- 0.4).

In contrast an analogous tissue Doppler parameter, the ratio of myocardial velocities during early and late ventricular filling in the basal septum, was significantly lower in users (1.2 +/- 0.4) when compared to non-users (1.6 +/- 0.5) or controls (1.6 +/- 0.6). The velocity gradient during myocardial E-wave in the posterior wall showed significantly lower values in users (3.8 +/- 1.3 1/s) as compared to controls (5.8 +/- 2.5 1/s).

There were no differences in systolic function. Summarizing strength athletes abusing anabolic steroids show negative alterations in diastolic function.

Accession number & update
17349798 Medline 20070401.
Title
Doping with growth hormone/IGF-1, anabolic steroids or erythropoietin: is there a cancer risk?
Source
Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society, {Pharmacol-Res}, May 2007 (epub: 03 Feb 2007) , vol. 55, no. 5, p. 359-69, 119 refs, ISSN: 1043-6618.
Author(s)
Tentori-Lucio (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/37002/8d2eabad/), Graziani-Grazia (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/37002/05298e49/).
Author affiliation
Department of Neuroscience, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy. tentori@uniroma2.it (tentori@uniroma2.it).
Abstract
Anabolic steroid and peptide hormones or growth factors are utilized to increase the performance of athletes of professional or amateur sports.

Despite their well-documented adverse effects, the use of some of these agents has significantly grown and has been extended also to non-athletes with the aim to improve appearance or to counteract ageing.

Pre-clinical studies and epidemiological observations in patients with an excess of hormone production or in patients chronically treated with hormones/growth factors for various pathologies have warned about the potential risk of cancer development and progression which may be also associated to the use of certain doping agents.

Anabolic steroids have been described to provoke liver tumours; growth hormone or high levels of its mediator insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been associated with colon, breast, and prostate cancers. Actually, IGF-1 promotes cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis either by triggering other growth factors or by interacting with pathways which have an established role in carcinogenesis and cancer promotion.

More recently, the finding that erythropoietin (Epo) may promote angiogenesis and inhibit apoptosis or modulate chemo- or radiosensitivity in cancer cells expressing the Epo receptor, raised the concern that the use of recombinant Epo to increase tissue oxygenation might favour tumour survival and aggressiveness.

Cancer risk associated to doping might be higher than that of patients using hormones/growth factors as replacement therapy, since enormous doses are taken by the athletes often for a long period of time. Moreover, these substances are often used in combination with other licit or illicit drugs and this renders almost unpredictable all the possible adverse effects including cancer.

Anyway, athletes should be made aware that long-term treatment with doping agents might increase the risk of developing cancer.

Accession number & update
17085981 Medline 20061101.
Title
Coronary calcification in body builders using anabolic steroids.
Source
Preventive cardiology, {Prev-Cardiol}, Fall 2006, vol. 9, no. 4, p. 198-201, ISSN: 1520-037X.
Author(s)
Santora-Lawrence-J (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/43001/010b50cb/), Marin-Jairo (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/43001/75a42310/), Vangrow-Jack (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/43001/52b706fc/), Minegar-Craig (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch4/43001/d3ca0594/), Robinson-Mary (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch5/43001/0a9f1d82/), Mora-Janet (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch6/43001/b2936e6a/), Friede-Gerald (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch7/43001/8ede8eb0/).
Author affiliation
Orange County Heart Institute and Research Center, Orange, CA 92668, USA. lsantora@cox.net (lsantora@cox.net).
Abstract
The authors measured coronary artery calcification as a means of examining the impact of anabolic steroids on the development of atherosclerotic disease in body builders using anabolic steroids over an extended period of time.

Fourteen male professional body builders with no history of cardiovascular disease were evaluated for coronary artery calcium, serum lipids, left ventricular function, and exercise-induced myocardial ischemia.

Seven subjects had coronary artery calcium, with a much higher than expected mean score of 98. Six of the 7 calcium scores were >90th percentile.

Mean total cholesterol was 192 mg/dL, while mean high-density lipoprotein was 23 mg/dL and the mean ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein was 8.3.

Left ventricular ejection fraction ranged between 49% and 68%, with a mean of 59%. No subject had evidence of myocardial ischemia.

This small group of professional body builders with a long history of steroid abuse had high levels of coronary artery calcium for age.

The authors conclude that in this small pilot study there is an association between early coronary artery calcium and long-term steroid abuse.

Large-scale studies are warranted to further explore this association.

Accession number & update
16292586 Medline 20070101.
Title
Sudden cardiac death during anabolic steroid abuse: morphologic and toxicologic findings in two fatal cases of bodybuilders.
Source
International journal of legal medicine, {Int-J-Legal-Med}, Jan 2007 (epub: 15 Nov 2005), vol. 121, no. 1, p. 48-53, 26 refs, ISSN: 0937-9827.
Author(s)
Fineschi-Vittorio (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/41001/a8ed69bc/), Riezzo-Irene (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/41001/6dd8802f/), Centini-Fabio (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/41001/fa8314fa/), Silingardi-Enrico (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch4/41001/b125b21b/), Licata-Manuela (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch5/41001/d13bf6ce/), Beduschi-Giovanni (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch6/41001/48dd6fa7/), Karch-Steven-B (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch7/41001/b5f7bc16/).
Author affiliation
Institute of Forensic Pathology, University of Foggia, Ospedali Riuniti, Foggia, Italy. vfinesc@tin.it (vfinesc@tin.it).
Abstract
We report two cases of sudden cardiac death (SCD) involving previously healthy bodybuilders who were chronic androgenic-anabolic steroids users.

In both instances, autopsies, histology of the organs, and toxicologic screening were performed. Our findings support an emerging consensus that the effects of vigorous weight training, combined with anabolic steroid use and increased androgen sensitivity, may predispose these young men to myocardial injury and even SCD.

Accession number & update
16364470 Medline R 20061101.
Title
Sudden anabolic steroid abuse-related death in athletes.
Source
International journal of cardiology, {Int-J-Cardiol}, 2 Jan 2007 (epub: 20 Dec 2005), vol. 114, no. 1, p. 114-7, ISSN: 1874-1754





Accession number & update
16796605 Medline 20060601.
Title
Impaired vasoreactivity in bodybuilders using androgenic anabolic steroids.
Source
European journal of clinical investigation, {Eur-J-Clin-Invest}, Jul 2006, vol. 36, no. 7, p. 483-8, ISSN: 0014-2972.
Author(s)
Lane-H-A (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/50001/45d0a858/), Grace-F (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/50001/38370f8d/), Smith-J-C (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/50001/7e171ef7/), Morris-K (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch4/50001/8e950c87/), Cockcroft-J (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch5/50001/c89d659a/), Scanlon-M-F (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch6/50001/98064656/), Davies-J-S (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch7/50001/310a0f02/).
Author affiliation
Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XW, Wales, UK. laneha@cf.ac.uk (laneha@cf.ac.uk).
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Anabolic androgenic steroids are used by some bodybuilders to enhance performance. While the cardiovascular implications of supraphysiological androgen levels requires further clarification, use is associated with sudden death, left ventricular hypertrophy, thrombo-embolism and cerebro-vascular events.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: To further understand the effect of androgenic anabolic steroid abuse on vascular function, this study assessed vascular stiffness (pulse-wave analysis) and cardiovascular risk factors in 28 male, bodybuilding subjects, of whom ten were actively receiving anabolic agents (group A; 26.4 +/- 7.2 years) and eight had undergone a 3-month wash-out period (group B; 32.1 +/- 7.1 years). The remaining ten bodybuilding subjects (group C; 24.4 +/- 4.4 years) denied any past use of anabolic steroids or other performance enhancing drugs. Comparisons were made with ten sedentary male controls (group D, 29.3 +/- 4.7 years).

RESULTS: Endothelial independent dilatation in response to glycerol trinitrate was significantly impaired in the group currently using anabolic steroids (group A) compared with the other three groups (A (5.63 +/- 3.24%) versus; B (11.10 +/- 4.91%), C (17.88 +/- 9.2%) and D (14.46 +/- 3.9%), P < 0.0005, respectively), whereas no significant differences in endothelial-dependent dilatation were detected between the groups (A (5.0 +/- 3.0%), B (7.4 +/- 3.4%), C (9.6 +/- 4.5%) and D (8.2 +/- 3.3%), P < 0.059, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies described a decline in vascular reactivity occurring in bodybuilding subjects which is independent of anabolic steroid use and may result from smooth muscle hypertrophy with increased vascular stiffness. This study revealed impaired vascular reactivity associated with anabolic agents and that improvement in vascular function may occur following their discontinuation.




Accession number & update
16529682 Medline 20060301.
Title
The effect of anabolic steroids on the gastrointestinal system, kidneys, and adrenal glands.
Source
Current sports medicine reports, {Curr-Sports-Med-Rep}, Apr 2006, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 104-9, 24 refs, ISSN: 1537-8918.
Author(s)
Modlinski-Ryan (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/53001/1ab4bd2b/), Fields-Karl-B (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/53001/fb7561e5/).
Author affiliation
Moses Cone Family Medicine Residency, Greensboro, NC 27401, USA.
Abstract
Over the past several decades we have seen an increase in the prevalence of anabolic steroid use by athletes. Because use of anabolic steroids is illicit, much of our knowledge of their side effects is derived from case reports, retrospective studies, or comparisons with studies in other similar patient groups.

It has been shown that high-dose anabolic steroids have an effect on lowering high-density lipoprotein, increasing low-density lipoprotein, and increasing the atherogenic-promoting apolipoprotein A.

Steroid abuse can also be hepatotoxic, promoting disturbances such as biliary stasis, peliosis hepatis, and even hepatomas, which are all usually reversible upon discontinuation. Suppression of the hypothalamic adrenal axis can also lead to profound adrenal changes that are also reversible with time.

Although rare, renal side effects have also been documented, leading to acute renal failure and even Wilms' tumors in isolated cases. Much of our knowledge of these potentially severe but usually limited side effects is confounded by use of combinations of different steroid preparations and by the concomitant use with other substances.

Physicians must target their efforts at counseling adolescents and other athletes about the potential harms of androgenic anabolic steroids and the legal options to improve strength and performance.

Accession number & update
16516601 Medline R 20060301.
Title
Cardiovascular effects of androgenic anabolic steroids in male bodybuilders determined by tissue Doppler imaging.
Source
The American journal of cardiology, {Am-J-Cardiol}, 15 Mar 2006 (epub: 02 Feb 2006), vol. 97, no. 6, p. 912-5, ISSN: 0002-9149.
Author(s)
Nottin-Stéphane (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/54001/83862c58/), Nguyen-Long-Dang (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/54001/31863f0d/), Terbah-Mohamed (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/54001/23d1f98c/), Obert-Philippe (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch4/54001/fc26ffa0/).
Author affiliation
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Adaptations to Exercise, Faculty of Sciences, Avignon, France.
Abstract
The effects of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in strength-trained athletes are controversial. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of regular AAS administration in bodybuilders using pulsed tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) to evaluate LV relaxation properties.

Fifteen male bodybuilders with a history of intensive, long-term strength training and 16 age-matched sedentary controls were recruited. Six of the bodybuilders reported regular use of AASs, and 9 were drug free.

To assess LV diastolic function, each subject underwent standard Doppler echocardiography and pulsed TDI. Drug-using bodybuilders exhibited altered LV diastolic filling characterized by a smaller contribution of passive filling to LV filling compared with their drug-free counterparts.

TDI measurements indicated that drug-using bodybuilders had smaller peak E(m) than drug-free bodybuilders and sedentary controls, except at the level of the anterior wall, at which peak E(m) was significantly smaller than in drug-free bodybuilders only. The E/E(m) ratio, an index of LV filling pressures, was not affected by strength training or by AAS use.

Drug-using bodybuilders exhibited larger LV end-diastolic diameters, volumes, and masses than their drug-free counterparts. However, no difference was found in LV wall thickness between the groups.

In conclusion, drug-using bodybuilders showed a decrease in the contribution in LV passive filling to LV filling associated with a decrease in LV relaxation properties. Because no wall thickening was obtained in drug-using bodybuilders, the decrease in LV relaxation properties might have been be due to an alteration in the active properties of the myocardium, but that has yet to be confirmed.

Accession number & update
16432848 Medline R 20060101.
Title
Effects of oxandrolone, an anabolic steroid, on hemostasis.
Source
American journal of hematology, {Am-J-Hematol}, Feb 2006, vol. 81, no. 2, p. 95-100, ISSN: 0361-8609.
Author(s)
Kahn-Nighat-N (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/58001/eadf9be6/), Sinha-Asru-K (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/58001/8ea9281b/), Spungen-Ann-M (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/58001/47aea232/), Bauman-William-A (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch4/58001/4a5dbb5f/).
Author affiliation
Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA. nighat.kahn@med.va.gov (nighat.kahn@med.va.gov).
Abstract
This study evaluated the short-term effects of oxandrolone, an anabolic androgenic synthetic steroid, on blood coagulation and the hemostatic/fibrinolytic system in healthy individuals.

Subjects (n = 14) were administered oxandrolone (10 mg twice daily) for 14 days. Blood was obtained on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 9, 14, and then at day 42 (28 days after discontinuation of the drug). Samples were analyzed for the plasma plasminogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), fibrinogen, and coagulation factors (II, V, VII, VIII, and X).

After 7 days of administration of oxandrolone, the plasma plasminogen level significantly increased (100% +/- 21% to 174% +/- 21% (P < 0.0001)). PAI-1 was significantly decreased at day 3 (16 +/- 9 to 7 +/- 4 mg/dL (P < 0.01)).

Coagulation factors II and V significantly increased at day 14 (88 +/- 15 to 122 +/- 11 (P < 0.005) and 105 +/- 21 to 179 +/-36% (P < 0.0001)), respectively. Factor VII level decreased by day 3 (91% +/- 26% to 83% +/- 18%, NS), but after 14 days factor VII level returned to baseline (91% +/- 26% to 93% +/- 19%, NS). The increase of factor VIII level was not significant (111% +/- 64% to 125% +/- 55%, NS).

Factor X increased steadily over 14 days of drug treatment (96% + /- 11% to 107% +/- 25%, NS) and after discontinuation, decreased and returned to baseline by day 42 (107% +/- 25% to 89% +/- 25%, NS). Fibrinogen decreased by 22% +/- 12%, (NS).

Administration of oxandrolone, to healthy young men was associated with a significant increase in select blood coagulation factors and plasminogen. These changes create a state of potential hypercoagulability that appears to be counterbalanced by increased fibrinolytic activity to maintain homeostasis.

2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


NIDA.

Accession number & update
16127201 Medline 20050101.
Title
Myocardial infarction in a 17-year-old body builder using clenbuterol.
Source
Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society, {Circ-J}, Sep 2005, vol. 69, no. 9, p. 1144-6, ISSN: 1346-9843.
Author(s)
Kierzkowska-Beata (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/63002/c0e008a5/), Stanczyk-Jerzy (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/63002/d2571412/), Kasprzak-Jaroslaw-D (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/63002/5f2e7c7d/).
Author affiliation
Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Institute of Paediatrics, Medical University Lodz, Poland.
Abstract
A case of non-Q myocardial infarction in a previously healthy 17-year-old body builder, who used clenbuterol, a long-acting beta(2) adrenergic agonist with anabolic and lipolytic effects, is reported. Only

1 case report of myocardial infarction associated with the use of clenbuterol was found in a literature review and that case was, however, associated with anabolic steroid use.

This is the first case report to describe myocardial infarction in a young male body builder only taking clenbuterol.

Accession number & update
15601278 Medline R 20040101.
Title
Postoperative course and anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse -- a case report.
Source
Anaesthesia, {Anaesthesia}, Jan 2005, vol. 60, no. 1, p. 81-4, ISSN: 0003-2409.
Author(s)
Medras-M (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/79001/2bd9103a/), Tworowska-U (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/79001/fa03f7fd/), Jozkow-P (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/79001/4161eb1c/), Dumanski-A (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch4/79001/d16a1b2e/), Dubinski-A (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch5/79001/5311ff68/).
Author affiliation
Department of Sports Medicine, University of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland. medras@endo.am.wroc.pl (medras@endo.am.wroc.pl).
Abstract
It is estimated that 80% of weight lifters and body-builders take anabolic-androgenic steroids. Their long-term use is associated with a variety of pathological conditions and premature death.

Anabolic- androgenic steroid abuse may lead to changes in the presentation and progression of some conditions.

It remains unclear whether anabolic steroids should be given to patients with a history of abuse of these drugs who are to undergo surgery.

We report on a fatal outcome following surgery in a 48-year-old weight lifter.

Accession number & update
15590370 Medline R 20040101.
Title
Myocardial infarction with intracoronary thrombus induced by anabolic steroids.
Source
Anadolu kardiyoloji dergisi : AKD = the Anatolian journal of cardiology, {Anadolu-Kardiyol-Derg}, Dec 2004, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 357-8, ISSN: 1302-8723.

Accession number & update
15155420 Medline R 20040101.
Title
Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids on apolipoproteins and lipoprotein (a).
Source
British journal of sports medicine, {Br-J-Sports-Med}, Jun 2004, vol. 38, no. 3, p. 253-9, ISSN: 1473-0480.
Author(s)
Hartgens-F (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/87001/28227323/), Rietjens-G (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/87001/0685fccb/), Keizer-H-A (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/87001/12da50b1/), Kuipers-H (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch4/87001/20604b4b/), Wolffenbuttel-B-H-R (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch5/87001/daccecec/).
Author affiliation
Netherlands Centre for Doping Affairs, Capelle aan den IJssel, The Netherlands. fhartgens@home.nl (fhartgens@home.nl).
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of two different regimens of androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) administration on serum lipid and lipoproteins, and recovery of these variables after drug cessation, as indicators of the risk for cardiovascular disease in healthy male strength athletes.

METHODS: In a non-blinded study (study 1) serum lipoproteins and lipids were assessed in 19 subjects who self administered AASs for eight or 14 weeks, and in 16 non-using volunteers. In a randomised double blind, placebo controlled design, the effects of intramuscular administration of nandrolone decanoate (200 mg/week) for eight weeks on the same variables in 16 bodybuilders were studied (study 2). Fasting serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-cholesterol (HDL2-C), HDL3-cholesterol (HDL3-C), apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were determined.

RESULTS: In study 1 AAS administration led to decreases in serum concentrations of HDL-C (from 1.08 (0.30) to 0.43 (0.22) mmol/l), HDL2-C (from 0.21 (0.18) to 0.05 (0.03) mmol/l), HDL3-C (from 0.87 (0.24) to 0.40 (0.20) mmol/l, and Apo-A1 (from 1.41 (0.27) to 0.71 (0.34) g/l), whereas Apo-B increased from 0.96 (0.13) to 1.32 (0.28) g /l. Serum Lp(a) declined from 189 (315) to 32 (63) U/l. Total cholesterol and triglycerides did not change significantly. Alterations after eight and 14 weeks of AAS administration were comparable. No changes occurred in the controls. Six weeks after AAS cessation, serum HDL-C, HDL2-C, Apo-A1, Apo-B, and Lp(a) had still not returned to baseline concentrations. Administration of AAS for 14 weeks was associated with slower recovery to pretreatment concentrations than administration for eight weeks. In study 2, nandrolone decanoate did not influence serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, HDL2-C, HDL3-C, Apo-A1, and Apo-B concentrations after four and eight weeks of intervention, nor six weeks after withdrawal. However, Lp(a) concentrations decreased significantly from 103 (68) to 65 (44) U/l in the nandrolone decanoate group, and in the placebo group a smaller reduction from 245 (245) to 201 (194) U/l was observed. Six weeks after the intervention period, Lp(a) concentrations had returned to baseline values in both groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Self administration of several AASs simultaneously for eight or 14 weeks produces comparable profound unfavourable effects on lipids and lipoproteins, leading to an increased atherogenic lipid profile, despite a beneficial effect on Lp(a) concentration. The changes persist after AAS withdrawal, and normalisation depends on the duration of the drug abuse. Eight weeks of administration of nandrolone decanoate does not affect lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, although it may selectively reduce Lp(a) concentrations. The effect of this on atherogenesis remains to be established.




Accession number & update
18388062 Medline 20080704.
Title
Acute myocardial infarction in a young man using anabolic steroids.
Source
Angiology, {Angiology}, Jun-Jul 2008 (epub: 02 Apr 2008), vol. 59, no. 3, p. 376-8, ISSN: 1940-1574.
Author(s)
Wysoczanski-Mariusz (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/1001/403a46bd/), Rachko-Maurice (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/1001/08a8061f/), Bergmann-Steven-R (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/1001/a5eec52f/).
Author affiliation
Department of Internal Medicine Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY 10003, USA. mwysoczanski@gmail.com (mwysoczanski@gmail.com).
Abstract
Anabolic-androgenic steroids are used worldwide to help athletes gain muscle mass and strength. Their use and abuse is associated with numerous side effects, including acute myocardial infarction (MI).

We report a case of MI in a young 31-year-old bodybuilder. Because of the serious cardiovascular complications of anabolic steroids, physicians should be aware of their abuse and consequences.




MEDLINE - 1996 to date (MEDL)
Accession number & update
00125133 Medline R 20080624.
Title
Anabolic steroids in athelics: crossover double-blind trial on weightlifters.
Source
British medical journal, {Br-Med-J}, 31 May 1975, vol. 2, no. 5969, p. 471-3, ISSN: 0007-1447.
Author(s)
Freed-D-L (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/5001/87de22bc/), Banks-A-J (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/5001/6e7a5c66/), Longson-D (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/5001/90529b75/), Burley-D-M (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch4/5001/c43e5f27/).
Corporate author(s)
.
Abstract
Thirteen experienced male weightlifters taking high-protein diets and regular exercise took part in a double-blind crossover trial of methandienone 10 or 25 mg/day to seeif the drug improved athletic performance.

Their improvemments were significantly greater on methandienone than on placebo; their body weights rose (though this seemed to be associated with water retention); and systolic blood pressure rose significantly. Methandienone caused many side effects, and three men had to withdraw because of them. All side effects disappeared after the drug was stopped.

Anabolic steroids are effective only when given combination with exercise and high-protein diet.We deprecate their use in athletics but can suggest no way of stopping it.



Accession number & update
18382179 Medline 20080529.
Title
Ischemic stroke related to anabolic abuse.
Source
Clinical neuropharmacology, {Clin-Neuropharmacol}, Mar-Apr 2008, vol. 31, no. 2, p. 80-5, ISSN: 1537-162X.
Author(s)
Santamarina-Rodrigo-Daniel (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/8002/2e3debbe/), Besocke-Ana-Gabriela (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/8002/f941f13c/), Romano-Lucas-Martin (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/8002/85b1337e/), Ioli-Pablo-Leonardo (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch4/8002/ea758e54/), Gonorazky-Sergio-Eduardo (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch5/8002/f3a0b147/).
Author affiliation
Neurology Department, Hospital Privado de Comunidad, Mar del Plata, Argentina. rsantamarina@sna.org.ar (rsantamarina@sna.org.ar).
Abstract
Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse increased in recent years, and it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Few reports on ischemic stroke related to anabolic steroid abuse have been published.

We report a case of a 26-year-old male amateur athlete who suffered a posterior territory ischemic stroke. No abnormalities were found in angiography and echocardiography studies, neither in hemostatic profile. His only significant risk factor was nonmedical use of stanozolol, an anabolic steroid.

Anabolic steroids are capable of increasing vascular tone, arterial tension, and platelet aggregation; therefore, they are prone to produce atherothrombotic phenomena.

Because of young people's widespread use of anabolic steroids, physicians should be aware of this kind of complication.



Accession number & update
17852158 Medline 20080307.
Title
Multivitamins and phospholipids complex protects the hepatic cells from androgenic-anabolic-steroids-induced toxicity.
Source
Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia Pa.), {Clin-Toxicol-Phila}, Jan 2008, vol. 46, no. 1, p. 57-66, ISSN: 1556-3650.
Author(s)
Pagonis-Thomas-A (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/12001/782d6519/), Koukoulis-George-N (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/12001/8f341bd6/), Hadjichristodoulou-Christos-S (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/12001/350fa356/), Toli-Paraskevi-N (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch4/12001/17229fc6/), Angelopoulos-Nikiforos-V (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch5/12001/e2a07a5a/).
Author affiliation
Department of Endocrinology, Thessaly University Medical School, Larissa, Greece. tpsportmed@the.forthnet.gr (tpsportmed@the.forthnet.gr).
Abstract
INTRODUCTION. Androgenic-anabolic-steroids (AAS)-induced hepatotoxicity typically occurs with C-17 alkylated oral agents abused by exercising individuals at clinically recommended doses. Injectable compounds appear to have the same risk for hepatotoxicity, but are applied in doses three to six times higher than clinically recommended. AAS users occasionally try to avoid the well-known hepatotoxic effects associated with the abuse of a multitude of AAS agents, by using the pharmaceutical agent compound N a phospholipid /vitamin preparation.

PRIMARY OBJECTIVE. The investigation of the actual hepatoprotective effect of compound N against AAS-induced toxicity.

METHODOLOGY. This was an observational cohort study of 320 athletes; 160 were AAS users and the other 160 were not abusing any substances. Of the 160 users, 44 were using AAS and compound N (group A), and 116 were using solely AAS (group B). The 160 athletes abstaining from substances abuse acted as controls (group C). All athletes were tested for alterations in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Enzyme levels before the study's onset and after the end of the 8-week AAS regimes were compared among the three groups, in order to delineate the hepatoprotective effect of compound N.


RESULTS. Prior to our research all groups showed normal values in all enzymes except creatine kinase (CK). After the 8-week period, CK levels were slightly lower in group A, but without variation in Groups B and C; -Glutamyl Transferase (GT) levels remained normal. Groups A and C had no elevations in any of the enzymes, except CK, while in group B all enzymes' values were elevated above the normal range. The only factor differentiating AAS users in group A from those in group B was the use of compound N, thus the results being suggestive of the compound's detoxification effect. The severity of AAS abuse was positively associated with the degree of changes ( values) in all measured enzymes except GT and CK.

CONCLUSIONS. Previous suggestions that serum hepatic enzyme elevations in exercising AAS abusers are connected to muscle fiber damage rather than the abuse itself, are contradicted by our results. Since all AAS abusing athletes were prone to exhibit elevations in enzymes' values, the mean values of group A were to be similar to those observed in group B, exceeding normal values. The group hepatic enzyme values of group B were significantly higher than the group C (control). Notably, group A did not have any statistically significant difference in the hepatic enzyme values compared to group C. The effect of exercise on these enzymes' elevations was ruled out by the comparability of training regimens and AAS toxicity was correlated to the severity of AAS abuse.

.
Accession number & update
15084541 Medline R 20040101.
Title
Are the cardiac effects of anabolic steroid abuse in strength athletes reversible?
Source
Heart (British Cardiac Society), {Heart}, May 2004, vol. 90, no. 5, p. 496-501, ISSN: 1468-201X.
Author(s)
Urhausen-A (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/89001/a4975519/), Albers-T (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/89001/e6742486/), Kindermann-W (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch3/89001/f48fef9f/).
Author affiliation
Institute of Sports and Preventive Medicine, University of Saarland Saarbruecken, Germany. a.urhausen@rz.uni-sb.de (a.urhausen@rz.uni-sb.de).
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reversibility of adverse cardiovascular effects after chronic abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in athletes.

METHODS: Doppler echocardiography and cycle ergometry including measurements of blood pressure at rest and during exercise were undertaken in 32 bodybuilders or powerlifters, including 15 athletes who had not been taking AAS for at least 12 months (ex-users) and 17 currently abusing AAS (users), as well as in 15 anabolic-free weightlifters.

RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure was higher in users (mean (SD) 140 (10) mm Hg) than in ex-users (130 (5) mm Hg) (p < 0.05) or weightlifters (125 (10) mm Hg; p < 0.001). Left ventricular muscle mass related to fat-free body mass and the ratio of mean left ventricular wall thickness to internal diameter were not significantly higher in users (3.32 (0.48) g/kg and 42.1 (4.4)%) than in ex-users (3.16 (0.53) g/kg and 40.3 (3.8)%), but were lower in weightlifters (2.43 (0.26) g/kg and 36.5 (4.0)%; p < 0.001). Left ventricular wall thickness related to fat-free body mass was also lower in weightlifters, but did not differ between users and ex-users.

Left ventricular wall thickness was correlated with a point score estimating AAS abuse in users (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). In all groups, systolic left ventricular function was within the normal range. The maximum late transmitral Doppler flow velocity (Amax) was higher in users (61 (12) cm/s) and ex-users (60 (12) cm/s) than in weightlifters (50 (9) cm/s; p < 0.05 and p = 0.054).

CONCLUSIONS: Several years after discontinuation of anabolic steroid abuse, strength athletes still show a slight concentric left ventricular hypertrophy in comparison with AAS-free strength athletes.


Accession number & update
14751958 Medline R 20040101.
Title
Raised concentrations of C reactive protein in anabolic steroid using bodybuilders.
Source
British journal of sports medicine, {Br-J-Sports-Med}, Feb 2004, vol. 38, no. 1, p. 97-8, ISSN: 0306-3674.
Author(s)
Grace-F-M (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch1/95002/efabf611/), Davies-B (http://www.datastarweb.com/NHS/20080714_144231_4f62b_3a/WBSrch2/95002/814e1f3a/).
Author affiliation
Department of Health and Exercise Science, School of Applied Sciences, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, UK. fgrace2@glam.ac.uk (fgrace2@glam.ac.uk).
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine levels of C reactive protein in users of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) compared with age matched control groups consisting of AAS using (but abstinent)/resistance trained and non-drug using/sedentary controls.

METHOD: Subjects included AAS using bodybuilders (n = 10); bodybuilders who denied AAS use (n = 10); sedentary controls (n = 8). Venous blood was sampled, from which serum concentrations of C reactive protein, male sex hormones, and cardiac troponin T were determined.

RESULTS: A significantly altered hormonal profile in the AAS using group provided indirect confirmation of AAS use. C reactive protein concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the AAS using bodybuilders. There was no relation between C reactive protein and cardiac troponin T.

CONCLUSION: AAS using bodybuilders had significantly higher C reactive protein concentrations, indicating a greater propensity to develop peripheral arterial disease.

Dr Pangloss
04-29-2009, 10:28 PM
I will read through and respond to these tomorrow, tat.

Tatyana
04-29-2009, 10:31 PM
I will read through and respond to these tomorrow, tat.

LOL, it was just a quick search I did.

I am sure at least two of them are completely pants.

It is interesting to see the studies that have been done, especially those focusing on cardiac health.

I think that this should be a consideration in all cycles.

Sledge
04-29-2009, 10:39 PM
Some pretty interesting info there tats. Seems a couple of the conclusions are conflicting though if I read it right.

Tatyana
04-29-2009, 10:55 PM
Some pretty interesting info there tats. Seems a couple of the conclusions are conflicting though if I read it right.

Do you mean between the steroids good and steroids bad thread?

I personally think it is all about being sensible.

People will respond differently to all drugs, some people have pre-existing conditions they are unaware of, for example a cardiomyopathy or some sort of hyperlipidaemia.

Dr Pangloss
04-30-2009, 06:41 AM
LOL, it was just a quick search I did.

I am sure at least two of them are completely pants.

It is interesting to see the studies that have been done, especially those focusing on cardiac health.

I think that this should be a consideration in all cycles.


cardiac health is the NUMBER ONE RISK. i do everything i can to decrease it.

Sledge
04-30-2009, 07:20 AM
No I meant just in the steroids bad post. As I read each one I was going back to the ones before it because they found some different effects.

The study's are all pretty clear in one thing though, if you use steroids monitor and look after your heart. mad if ya don't.



I did laugh at this conclusion from 1975 though
Anabolic steroids are effective only when given combination with exercise and high-protein diet.We deprecate their use in athletics but can suggest no way of stopping it.

Hey they were right on the money there.

Tatyana
04-30-2009, 09:45 AM
No I meant just in the steroids bad post. As I read each one I was going back to the ones before it because they found some different effects.

The study's are all pretty clear in one thing though, if you use steroids monitor and look after your heart. mad if ya don't.



I did laugh at this conclusion from 1975 though
Anabolic steroids are effective only when given combination with exercise and high-protein diet.We deprecate their use in athletics but can suggest no way of stopping it.

Hey they were right on the money there.



I really liked that one as well.

Reloaded
05-02-2009, 02:02 PM
Tatyana, i did not read most of that.
Your avatar makes my blood accumulate in a certain area.

ANABOLIC1
05-07-2009, 09:26 PM
Steroids are the greatest thing in this world.