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heavyiron
01-02-2010, 07:12 PM
Cytomel

(liothyronine sodium)

Cytomel is a synthetic T3 hormone. As you may already know, most natural T3 is not produced directly by your thyroid gland, but rather is converted from the T4 thyroid hormone. (8)

Cytomel T3 Weight Loss

Natural T3 is a regulator of the oxidative metabolism of energy producing substrates (food or stored substrates like fat, muscle, and glycogen) by the mitochondria. The mitochondria, as you will recall from your high school biology class, are usually referred to as the "cell´s powerhouses" because they produce ATP. Taking Cytomel (supplemental T3) greatly increases the uptake of nutrients into the mitochondria and also their oxidation rate (i.e. the rate at which they are burned for energy), by increasing the activities of the enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolic pathway. Everything is working harder, in other words, and more fuel is needed to supplement this increased work rate. Therefore, as you can guess, taking supplemental Cytomel will increase your body´s energy demands. And if you are in a hypocaloric state, you will begin burning even fatter primarily due to an increase in ATP. This increased ATP causes an increase in overall metabolic activity. (8)(9)This is exactly what we want, and is why we would be taking thyroid hormones like Cytomel in the first place. If you aren´t taking anabolic steroids with your Cytomel, however, your body may start to eat away muscle to provide energy for you to function. Remember mitochondria/ATP aren´t very picky, but they are very efficient. What I mean by this is that they will use whatever is on hand to generate energy for your body to continue functioning, fat, protein, glucose; it doesn´t matter to ATP, as long as there´s something to give them energy. Taking this drug will increase their need to find something to burn to create this energy. Ergo, if we aren´t taking anabolic steroids while taking our T3, we may lose too much muscle, especially while dieting.

Thus we can see that there are many advantages to using Cytomel to optimize our metabolic rate. It will also increase your body´s ability to synthesize protein, but from what I´ve seen personally, it acts as a catabolic when it isn´t administered with anabolic steroids. It is often the last thing added into a precontest diet, as it has a reputation for getting rid of the last few percentages of bodyfat& the "sticky fat" as it´s called in bodybuilding, the fat that just doesn´t want to leave you in the last few weeks of dieting. I think this is a poor use for this drug, and that it should be the first thing added into a diet to lose fat, as it will optimize your metabolic rate, which should be done at the outset of a diet, not after the calorie restriction has diminished your thyroid output and you are adding it in simply to replace what was lost.

Cytomel Side Effects

Unfortunately, in all of the studies I´ve seen, T3 also increased growth hormone production. (5)(6) As we all know, GH is also a strongly lipolytic compound, and this is another mechanism by which T3 may exert its effects, although I suspect this would only be a small percentage of its overall effects. This being the case, it has always been somewhat problematic to me to note that when GH and T3 are used together, the increased nitrogen retention normally found with GH use is negated. (7). If you were only using T3 and GH this may be a problem, but as I´ve already stated, you are going to need some anabolic agents if you are using T3. And as you have read previously, I recommend the veritable anabolic/lipolytic orgy of Insulin, T3, Anabolic Steroids, GH, and insulin, for 100% maximum results in minimal time.

On the brighter side, and of special note to dieters, administration of T3 has been shown to upregulate the beta 2 receptors in fat tissue. As you know clenbuterol and similar compounds downregulate this receptor, so using T3 with your clen will help stave off or reverse this downregulation. (1)(2)(3)(4). I would still recommend taking your benadryl every third week, though.

Going off cytomel

Finally, I would like to address the issue of recovery of your natural thyroid function after you stop taking cytomel. The horror stories of people on permanent thyroid replacement just aren´t true. I remember a few years ago, the rumor was circulating that the current Ms.Fitness had permanently shut off her thyroid gland, and was now fat and on thyroid hormone permanently. This is just another horror story based in nothing but conjecture and rumor, the studies I´ve looked at have shown people recovering their thyroid hormone relatively quickly (within months, at most) after going off of several YEARS (!) of thyroid replacement therapy (10)(11). I speculate that you can optimize your metabolic rate with Cytomel for 9-10 months a year, and just normalize yourself for 2-3 months (perhaps the winter, when you are mostly covered up), and then go right back on. Some people in the studies I read were on T3 for 30 years and recovered their natural thyroid function within short order. I think we can safely spend an athletic career using Cytomel 9-10 months out of the year, and just taking those few months off to normalize ourselves. Is this aggressive? Yes. Is this unsafe? NO.

References:

1. Catecholamines inhibit Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in rat skeletal muscle through beta(2)-adrenoceptors and cAMP. Navegantes LC, Resano NM, Migliorini RH, Kettelhut IC Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001 Sep;281(3):E449-54

2. Regulation of human adipocyte gene expression by thyroid hormone J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002 Feb;87(2):630-4 Viguerie N, Millet L, Avizou S, Vidal H, Larrouy D, Langin D.

3. Alpha 2- and beta-adrenergic receptor binding and action in gluteal adipocytes from patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism Metabolism 1987 Nov;36(11):1031-9 Richelsen B, Sorensen NS

4. Regulation of beta 1- and beta 3-adrenergic agonist-stimulated lipolytic response in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rat white adipocytes Br J Pharmacol 2000 Feb;129(3):448-56. Germack R, Starzec A, Perret GY

5. Role of thyroid hormone in the control of growth hormone gene expression Braz J Med Biol Res 1994 May;27(5):1269-72. Volpato CB, Nunes MT.

6. Low-dose T(3) improves the bed rest model of simulated weightlessness in men and women. Am J Physiol 1999 Aug;277(2 Pt 1):E370-9 Lovejoy JC, Smith SR, Zachwieja JJ, Bray GA, Windhauser MM, Wickersham PJ, Veldhuis JD, Tulley R, de la Bretonne JA.

7. Effects of long-term growth hormone (GH) and triiodothyronine (T3) administration on functional hepatic nitrogen clearance in normal man. Wolthers T, Grofte T, Moller N, Vilstrup H, Jorgensen. J Hepatol 1996 Mar;24(3):313-9

8. Human Anatomy and Physiology, 6th Edition. John w. Hole jr.

9. Physicians Desk Reference

10. Recovery of pituitary thyrotropic function after withdrawal of prolonged thyroid-suppression therapy. N Engl J Med 1975 Oct 2;293(14):681-4 Vagenakis AG, Braverman LE, Azizi F, Portinay GI, Ingbar SH.

11. Patterns off recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in patients taken of chronic thyroid therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1975 Jul;41(1):70-80 Krugman LG, Hershman JM, Chopra IJ, Levine GA, Pekary E, Geffner DL, Chua Teco GN

steroid.com

heavyiron
01-02-2010, 07:13 PM
What I found interesting about this profile of T3 was the fact that recovery after years of use happened within a few weeks of cessation of T3. On the net there are tons of people saying you may permanentaly shut down your thyroid with prolonged use of T3 but science says the opposite.



Recovery of pituitary thyrotropic function after withdrawal of prolonged thyroid-suppression therapy.

Vagenakis AG, Braverman LE, Azizi F, Portinay GI, Ingbar SH.

The pattern of thyrotropin secretion was analyzed in seven euthyroid women, before and after withdrawal of long-term thyroid hormone, by serial measurements of thyroid 131l uptake, serum thyroxine, tri-iodothyronine, and thyrotropin concentrations, and the response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. During exogenous hormone administration, 131l uptake was suppressed, and serum thyrotropin concentrations before and after administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone were undetectable. After withdrawal of exogenous hormone, thyrotropin secretory function was transiently impaired, as indicated by undetectable basal thyrotropin concentrations together with absence of response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and subsequently by normal values of basal thyrotropin concentration and normal responses to releasing hormone while serum thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine concentrations were subnormal. Decreased thyrotropin reserve persisted for two to five weeks. Detectable values of serum thyrotropin (less than 1.2 muU per milliliter) and a normal 131l uptake usually occurred concurrently in two to three weeks. Serum thyroxine concentration returned to normal at least four weeks after hormone withdrawal.

PMID: 808728 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Patterns off recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in patients taken of chronic thyroid therapy.

Krugman LG, Hershman JM, Chopra IJ, Levine GA, Pekary E, Geffner DL, Chua Teco GN.

To determine the patterns of recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis following long-term thyroid hormone therapy, TRH tests were performed on 8 euthyroid nongoitrous patients, 5 euthyroid goitrous patients, and 5 hypothyroid patients while they were taking full doses of thyroid hormone and 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 days after stopping it. Serum TSH, T3, and T4 were measured before and at multiple intervals over a 4-h period after giving 500 mug TRH iv. In euthyroid non-goitrous patients, the mean duration of suppressed TSH response to TRH (maximum deltaTSH less than 8 muU/ml) was 12 +/- 4 (SE) days after stopping thyroid hormone and the mean time to recovery of normal TSH response to TRH (maximum deltaTSH greater than 8 muU/ml) was 16 +/- 5 days. None of the euthyroid nongoitrous patients ever hyperresponded to TRH; their average maximal deltaTSH was 24.5 +/- 2.2 muU/ml. Serum T4 fell below normal in 4 euthyroid non-goitrous patients, reaching lowest values at 4 to 28 days. While serum T4 was low, deltaTSH was subnormal. Normal increments of T4 and T3 after TRH occurred at 19 +/- 5 and 22 +/- 6 days, respectively. In the 5 goitrous patients, patterns of recovery of pituitary and thyroid function assessed by the same parameters were much less consistent. In the 5 hypothyroid patients, the mean duration of suppressed basal TSH and suppressed deltaTSH was 13 +/- 3 days; mean time to attain a supranormal basal TSH (greater than 8 muU/ml) was 16 +/- 4 days and to reach a supranormal deltaTSH (greater than 38 muU/ml) after TRH was 29 +/- 8 days. Following prolonged thyroid therapy in euthyroid patients, recovery of normal TSH responsiveness to TRH preceded recovery of the normal T3 and T4 response to TRH by 3 to 6 days. Basal serum TSH may be used to differentiate euthyroid from hypothyroid patients 35 days after withdrawal of thyroid therapy; the response to TRH does not improve this differentiation.

PMID: 807596 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

heavyiron
01-02-2010, 07:14 PM
Thyroid Hormone for Weight Loss:
Physiologic and Metabolic Effects
by Nandi


Introduction

It has been over 100 years since the discovery by Magnus-Levy that thyroid hormones play a central role in energy homeostasis, and 75 years since the hormones were first used for weight loss. Despite this great length of time, the precise mechanisms by which thyroid hormones exert their calorigenic effect are not completely characterized, and still actively debated. Despite numerous clinical studies having shown that the administration of thyroid hormone induces weight loss, it is not currently indicated as a weight loss agent. This is probably due to the number of side effects observed during thyroid hormone use at the relatively high doses used in the majority of obesity treatment studies. These deleterious effects include cardiac problems such as tachycardia and atrial arrhythmias, loss of muscle mass as well as fat, increased bone resorption and muscle weakness. Nevertheless, thyroid hormones, particularly triiodothyronine (T3) are a mainstay in the arsenal of drugs used by bodybuilders for fat loss. The widespread underground use of t3 warrants an understanding of its mechanism of action, as well as a knowledge of how it is most effectively and safely used, with an eye to minimizing side effects.



Thyroid Function and Physiology

Before jumping right into a discussion of the use of thyroid hormone for fat loss, a little review of thyroid function and physiology might be in order. The thyroid gland secretes two hormones of interest to us, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). t3 is considered the physiologically active hormone, and T4 is converted peripherally into t3 by the action of the enzyme deiodinase. The bulk of the body's t3 (about 80%) comes from this conversion. The secretion of T4 is under the control of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) which is produced by the pituitary gland. TSH secretion is in turn controlled through release of Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone which is produced in the hypothalamus. This is analogous to testosterone production, where GnRH from the hypothalamus causes the pituitary to release LH, which in turn stimulates the testes to produce testosterone.

In addition to t3, it has recently been recognized that there exist two additional active metabolites of T3: 3,5 and 3,3' diiodothyronines, which we will collectively call T2. Studies have shown that 3,3'-T2 may be more effective in raising resting metabolic rate when hypothyroid subjects are treated with t3, than when normal (euthyroid) subjects are given t3. Therefore in normal subjects 3,5-T2 may be the principal active metabolite of t3 (1)

Like the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the thyroid gland is under negative feedback control. When t3 levels go up, TSH secretion is suppressed. This is the mechanism whereby exogenous thyroid hormone suppresses natural thyroid hormone production. There is a difference though between the way anabolic steroids suppress natural testosterone production and the way t3 suppresses the thyroid. With steroids, the longer and heavier the cycle is, the longer your natural testosterone is suppressed. This is not the case with exogenous thyroid hormone.

An early study that looked at thyroid function and recovery under the influence of exogenous thyroid hormone was undertaken by Greer (2). He looked at patients who were misdiagnosed as being hypothyroid and put on thyroid hormone replacement for as long as 30 years. When the medication was withdrawn, their thyroids quickly returned to normal.

Here is a remark about Greer's classic paper from a later author:

"In 1951, Greer reported the pattern of recovery of thyroid function after stopping suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone in euthyroid [normal] subjects based on sequential measurements of their thyroidal uptake of radioiodine. He observed that after withdrawal of exogenous thyroid therapy, thyroid function, in terms of radioiodine uptake, returned to normal in most subjects within two weeks. He further observed that thyroid function returned as rapidly in those subjects whose glands had been depressed by several years of thyroid medication as it did in those whose gland had been depressed for only a few days" (3)

These results have been subsequently verified in several studies.(3)(4) So contrary to what has been stated in the bodybuilding literature, there is no evidence that long term thyroid supplementation will somehow damage your thyroid gland. Nevertheless, most bodybuilders will choose to cycle their t3 (or T4 which in most cases works just as well) as part of a cutting strategy, since t3 is catabolic with respect to muscle just as it is with fat. As previously mentioned, long term t3 induced hyperthyroidism is also catabolic to bone as well as muscle.

The proviso about T4 vs t3 for weight loss alluded to above needs some elaboration. There have been a number of studies that have shown that during starvation, or when carbohydrate intake is reduced to approximately 25 to 50 grams per day, levels of deiodinase decline, hindering the conversion of T4 to the physiologically active t3. (5) From an evolutionary standpoint this makes sense: during periods of starvation the body, teleologically speaking, would like to reduce its basal metabolic rate to preserve fat and especially muscle stores. However, a recent study demonstrating the effectiveness and safety of the ketogenic diet for weight loss recorded no change in circulating t3 levels.(6) So this issue not completely settled. Nevertheless, persons contemplating thyroid supplementation during ketogenic dieting might prefer t3 over T4 since the bulk of the research does suggest a decline in the peripheral conversion of T4 to t3 during low carb dieting.

Now that we have reviewed a little about thyroid function, let's consider just how it is that thyroid hormone exerts its fat burning effects.



Increased Oxidative Energy Metabolism

Thyroid hormone has long been recognized as a major regulator of the oxidative metabolism of energy producing substrates (food or stored substrates like fat, muscle, and glycogen) by the mitochondria. The mitochondria are often called the "cell's powerhouses" because this is where foodstuffs are turned into useful energy in the form of ATP. t3 and T2 increase the flux of nutrients into the mitochondria as well as the rate at which they are oxidized, by increasing the activities of the enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolic pathway. The increased rate of oxidation is reflected by an increase in oxygen consumption by the body. t3 and T2 appear to act by different mechanisms to produce different results. T2 is believed to act on the mitochondria directly, increasing the rate of mitochondrial respiration, with a consequent increase in ATP production. t3 on the other hand acts at the nuclear level, inducing the transcription of genes controlling energy metabolism, primarily the genes for so-called uncoupling proteins, or UCP (see below). The time course of these two actions is quite different. T2 begins to increase mitochondrial respiration and metabolic rate immediately. t3 on the other hand requires a day or longer to increase RMR since the synthesis of new proteins, the UCP, is required (1).

There are a number of putative mechanisms whereby T2 is believed to increase mitochondrial energy production rates, resulting in increased ATP levels. These include an increased influx of Ca++ into the mitochondria, with a resulting increase in mitochondrial dehydrogenases. This in turn would lead to an increase in reduced substrates available for oxidation. An increase in cytochrome oxidase activity has also been observed. This would hasten the reduction of O2, speeding up respiration. These and a number of other proposed mechanisms for the action of T2 are reviewed by Lannie et al.(7)

What is the fate of the extra ATP produced during hyperthyroidism? There are a number of ways by which the increased ATP promotes an increase in metabolic activity, including the following:

Increased Na+/K+ATPase. This is the enzyme responsible for controlling the Na/K pump, which regulates the relative intracellular and extracellular concentrations of these ions, maintaining the normal transmembrane ion gradient. Sestoft(7) has estimated this effect may account for up to to 10% of the increased ATP usage.


Increased Ca++-dependent ATPase. The intracellular concentration of calcium must be kept lower than the extracellular concentration to maintain normal cellular function. ATP is required to pump out excess calcium. It has been estimated that 10% of a cell's energy expenditure is used just to maintain Ca++ homeostasis. (1)


Substrate cycling. Hyperthyroidism induces a futile cycle of lipogenesis/lipolysis in fat cells. The stored triglycerides are broken down into free fatty acids and glycerol, then reformed back into triglycerides again. This is an energy dependent process that utilizes some of the excess ATP produced in the hyperthyroid state (8). Futile cycling has been estimated to use approximately 15% of the excess ATP created during hyperthyroidism (8)


Increased Heart Work. This puts perhaps the greatest single demand on ATP usage, with increased heart rate and force of contraction accounting for up to 30% to 40% of ATP usage in hyperthyroidism (9)


Mitochondrial Uncoupling

As mentioned, the mitochondria are often characterized as the cell's powerhouse. They convert foodstuffs into ATP, which is used to fuel all the body's metabolic processes. Much research suggests that t3, like another much more potent agent DNP, has the ability to uncouple oxidation of substrates from ATP production. t3 is believed to increase the production of so called uncoupling proteins. Uncoupling protein (UCP) is a transporter family that is present in the mitochondrial inner membrane, and as its name suggests, it uncouples respiration from ATP synthesis by dissipating the transmembrane proton gradient as heat. Instead of useful ATP being produced from energy substrates, heat is generated instead. There are conflicting studies about the importance of t3 induced uncoupling. Animal studies have demonstrated an actual increase in ATP production commensurate with increased oxygen consumption as we discussed above. Other studies in humans have shown that in fact uncoupling in skeletal muscle does occur. This would contribute to t3 induced thermogenesis, with a resulting increase in basal metabolic rate.(10)

To make up for the deficit in ATP production (as well as provide fuel for the extra ATP production discussed above) more substrates must be burned for fuel, resulting in fat loss. Unfortunately, along with the fat that is burned, some protein from muscle is also catabolized for energy. This is the downside of t3 use, and the reason many people choose to use an anabolic steroid or prohormone during a t3 cycle to help preserve muscle mass. Studies have shown this to be an effective strategy (11). (Muscle glycogen is also more rapidly depleted, and less efficiently stored during hyperthyroidism. This may account for some of the muscle weakness generally associated with t3 use.)

Countering t3 induced muscle loss with AAS or prohormones makes sense from a physiological viewpoint as well. Thyroid hormone muscle protein breakdown is mainly mediated via the so-called ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (12). (There are several independent metabolic pathways of protein breakdown in the body. For instance, another pathway, the lysosomal pathway, is responsible for the accelerated rate of muscle protein breakdown during and after exercise.) Testosterone administration has been shown to decrease ubiquitin-proteasome activity. (13) So AAS specifically target the muscle protein breakdown process stimulated by t3.

What may not be an effective strategy to maintain muscle mass during a t3 cycle is the use of exogenous growth hormone (GH). Studies have shown that when GH and t3 are administered concurrently, the increased nitrogen retention normally associated with GH use is abolished. This has been attributed to the observation that t3 increases levels of insulin like growth factor binding protein, reducing the bioavailability of igf-1 (14). Nevertheless, GH has fat burning properties independent of igf-1, so using GH with t3 would act additively to speed fat burning, but with little if any preservation of lean body mass. So again, if GH is used in conjunction with t3, anabolic steroid/prohormone use would be indicated.



Andregenic Receptor Modulation

Administration of t3 has been shown to upregulate the so-called beta 2 adrenergic receptor in fat tissue. What is the significance of this effect for fat loss? Before fat can be used as fuel, it must be mobilized from the fat cells where it is stored. An enzyme called Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL) is the rate-controlling enzyme in lipolysis, or fat mobilization. The body produces two catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine, which bind to the beta 2 receptor and activate HSL. The upregulation of the beta 2 receptor due to t3 results in an increased ability of catecholamines to activate HSL, leading to increased lipolysis.

Bodybuilders often use drugs like Clenbuterol, which bind to the beta 2 receptors and activate them in the same way as the body's endogenous catecholamines. The use of Clenbuterol along with t3 can produce an additive lipolytic effect: t3 increases the number of receptors, while Clenbuterol binds to the receptors activating HSL and increasing lipolysis. Since Clenbuterol itself downregulates the beta 2 receptor, most bodybuilders use Clenbuterol in a two week on/ two week off cycle, the rationale being that this minimizes downregulation and allows receptor recovery. Another option is to use the antihistamine Ketotifen concurrently with the Clenbuterol. Studies have shown that Ketotifen attenuates the beta 2 receptor downregulation caused by Clenbuterol (15). Moreover, research in AIDS patients has shown that Ketotifen blocks the production of the proinflammatory and catabolic cytokine TNF-alpha (16). This may be of relevance to bodybuilders since there is evidence showing TNF lowers both testosterone and IGF-1 levels quite significantly (17) (18), while strenuous exercise elevates TNF levels. (19)

Besides increasing beta 2 receptor density in adipose tissue, t3 upregulates this receptor in human skeletal muscle (12). This has some very intriguing if somewhat speculative implications for the combined use of Clenbuterol and t3. Animal studies have shown that catecholamines, particularly Clenbuterol, inhibit Ca++ dependent skeletal muscle proteolysis (20). Like the lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways discussed above, Ca++ regulated proteolysis is yet another way for the body to degrade muscle protein. Again the implications are enticing: Increased beta 2 receptor density from t3 use, coupled with the beta 2 agonist Clenbuterol, could slow this pathway of muscle catabolism.

Another adrenergic receptor important to lipolysis is the alpha 2 receptor, which impedes fat mobilization by counteracting the effects of the beta 2 receptor. There are some conflicting studies about the effects of t3 on the alpha 2 receptor, with studies showing either a downregulation (21) or no effect (22). If t3 does in fact downregulate alpha 2 receptors, this would further aid lipolysis.

Studies in rats have shown that inducing hyperthyroidism increases the lipolytic beta 3 receptor density in white adipose tissue by 70% (23). Beta 3 receptors are abundant in human white adipose tissue as well, and if t3 administration has the same effect in humans, this could could contribute significantly to t3 induced fat loss. This might also argue for taking a currently available beta 3 agonist such as octopamine along with t3 and perhaps Clenbuterol.



Decreased Phosphodiesterase Expression

In hyperthyroid patients as well as in normal subjects given t3, levels of the enzyme phosphodiesterase are lowered in fat cells (20). When lipolytic hormones like epinephrine (adrenaline) bind to the beta 2 receptor described above, they initiate a signaling cascade mediated by the so called “second messenger” cyclic AMP (cAMP). cAMP in turn acts on other cellular enzymes to initiate and maintain lipolysis. The original signal is terminated when cAMP is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase. Clearly, maintaining elevated cAMP levels, by lowering phosphodiesterase concentrations with t3, will prolong lipolysis.

As an aside, caffeine is thought to exert at least a portion of its lipolytic action by lowering phosphodiesterase in fat cells. Interestingly, Viagra and Cialis are also phosphodiesterase inhibitors but their action seems to be limited to relaxing vascular smooth muscles.



Increased Growth Hormone Secretion

In vitro, animal, and human studies have all demonstrated that t3 administration increases growth hormone production. (24)(25) Since GH is calorigenic aside from any increase in igf-1, elevated GH may contribute to some of the fat burning associated with t3 administration. This effect may obviate the need for the use of expensive recombinant HGH, as mentioned above.



Decreased Insulin Secretion

Insulin is well known as a lipogenic hormone. It promotes fat storage by facilitating the uptake of fatty acids by adipocytes, and reducing lipid oxidation in muscle tissue. Several studies have shown that thyroid hormone is associated with glucose intolerance resulting from decreased glucose stimulated insulin secretion (26).

This defect in insulin secretion is believed to result from an increase in the rate of apoptosis (programmed cell death) of pancreatic beta cells as a direct effect of thyroid hormone excess.(27) This process is reversible, since when thyroid hormone is withdrawn the rate of beta cell replication increases until homeostasis returns. However, there are conflicting studies regarding the effects of t3 on insulin. For example, Dimitriadis et al (28) showed a decrease in glucose stimulated insulin secretion, consistent with (25), but an increase in basal insulin. They also observed increased insulin clearance, with a compensatory increase in basal insulin secretion.

So if in fact the hyperthyroid state is associated with lower insulin levels, this could explain a portion of hyperthyroid stimulated lipolysis. The obvious downside here is that insulin is also an anabolic hormone. Basal insulin concentration is thought to limit the action of the ubiquitin-proteasome degradative pathway of muscle protein breakdown (29). Of course supplementing with insulin during t3 use would be counterproductive. However, as mentioned above, anabolic steroids inhibit ubiquitin-proteasome activity, so their use could counter any loss in muscle anabolism resulting from a drop insulin levels.



The Future

As mentioned at the beginning of this article, a major roadblock in the adoption of t3 by the medical community as an antiobesity agent is its deleterious effect on the heart. Recent research has identified two isoforms of the thyroid hormone receptor, TRalpha and TRbeta. The TRalpha-form may preferentially regulate the heart rate, and an experimental agent, GC-1, has been developed that selectively binds the TRbeta receptor, with minimal effects on the heart (30). The distribution and actions of TRalpha and TRbeta throughout the body are not yet well characterized. However should it turn out that TRalpha is specific to the heart, then drugs like GC-1 may turn out to be effective fat burning agents with a much safer profile that t3 or T4.

One alleged “futuristic” agent that is here now is T2, or 3,5-Di-iodo-L-thyronine, the t3 metabolite discussed above. Unfortunately, this product does not live up to its hype. It has been claimed to be as or more effective that t3 for fat burning with minimal suppression of endogenous thyroid production. Regarding the relative effectiveness of T2 as a lipolytic agent, and its effect on TSH, this topic was thoroughly covered in a recent article by Bryan Haycock in Muscle Monthly:


All of my research into this subject has led me to the same conclusion reached by Mr. Haycock. That is, T2 is only slightly less suppressive of TSH than is t3, and only packs a portion of the lipolytic punch of t3, with no ability to increase the expression of the UCPs, which is a major determinant of the action of thyroid hormone.

Summary

We have discussed a number of ways by which t3, and its active metabolite T2 act to increase resting energy expenditure. Also discussed were some drawbacks of t3 use, such as cardiac stress, as well as the potential loss of muscle mass. It is ironic that the latter may be of more concern to many bodybuilders that the other more serious potential impacts on health. Nevertheless, used moderately and for short periods (a couple of months or less) in people with no preexisting cardiovascular disease t3 has a relatively safe medical profile, compared to other lipolytic agents like DNP. Perhaps most importantly we have presented substantial evidence that even the long-term use of supraphysiological levels of t3 does not damage the thyroid gland.


References:

(1) Endocrinology 2002 Feb;143(2):504-10 Are the effects of t3 on resting metabolic rate in euthyroid rats entirely caused by t3 itself? Moreno M, Lombardi A, Beneduce L, Silvestri E, Pinna G, Goglia F, Lanni A.

(2)(Greer,M. N Engl J Med 244:385, 1951)

(3)N Engl J Med 1975 Oct 2;293(14):681-4 Recovery of pituitary thyrotropic function after withdrawal of prolonged thyroid-suppression therapy. Vagenakis AG, Braverman LE, Azizi F, Portinay GI, Ingbar SH.

(4) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1975 Jul;41(1):70-80 Patterns off recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in patients taken of chronic thyroid therapy. Krugman LG, Hershman JM, Chopra IJ, Levine GA, Pekary E, Geffner DL, Chua Teco GN

(5) Int J Obes 1983;7(2):123-31 The effect of a low-calorie diet alone and in combination with triiodothyronine therapy on weight loss and hypophyseal thyroid function in obesity. Koppeschaar HP, Meinders AE, Schwarz F.

(6) Am J Med 2002 Jul;113(1):30-6 Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program. Westman EC, Yancy WS, Edman JS, Tomlin KF, Perkins CE.

(7) J Endocrinol Invest 2001 Dec;24(11):897-913 Control of energy metabolism by iodothyronines.
Lanni A, Moreno M, Lombardi A, de Lange P, Goglia F

(8) Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1980 Nov;13(5):489-506 Metabolic aspects of the calorigenic effect of thyroid hormone in mammals. Sestoft L.

(9)Annu Rev Nutr 1995;15:263-91 Thermogenesis and thyroid function. Freake HC, Oppenheimer JH.

(10) J Clin Invest 2001 Sep;108(5):733-7 Effect of triiodothyronine on mitochondrial energy coupling in human skeletal muscle. Lebon V, Dufour S, Petersen KF, Ren J, Jucker BM, Slezak LA, Cline GW, Rothman DL, Shulman GI.

(11)J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999 Jan;84(1):207-12 Testosterone administration preserves protein balance but not muscle strength during 28 days of bed rest. Zachwieja JJ, Smith SR, Lovejoy JC, Rood JC, Windhauser MM, Bray GA.

(12) Genome Res 2002 Feb;12(2):281-91 In vivo regulation of human skeletal muscle gene expression by thyroid hormone. Clement K, Viguerie N, Diehn M, Alizadeh A, Barbe P, Thalamas C, Storey JD, Brown PO, Barsh GS, Langin D.

(13) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003 Jan;88(1):358-62 Related articles, Links Differential anabolic effects of testosterone and amino Acid feeding in older men. Ferrando AA, Sheffield-Moore M, Paddon-Jones D, Wolfe RR, Urban RJ.

(14) J Hepatol 1996 Mar;24(3):313-9 Effects of long-term growth hormone (GH) and triiodothyronine (T3) administration on functional hepatic nitrogen clearance in normal man. Wolthers T, Grofte T, Moller N, Vilstrup H, Jorgensen JO.

(15) Cardiovasc Res 1998 Oct;40(1):211-22 Terbutaline-induced desensitization of human cardiac beta 2-adrenoceptor-mediated positive inotropic effects: attenuation by ketotifen. Poller U, Fuchs B, Gorf A, Jakubetz J, Radke J, Ponicke K, Brodde OE.

(16) Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996;50(3):167-70 Ketotifen in HIV-infected patients: effects on body weight and release of TNF-alpha. Ockenga J, Rohde F, Suttmann U, Herbarth L, Ballmaier M, Schedel I.

(17)Endocrinology 1998 Jun;139(6):2863-8 Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits leydig cell steroidogenesis through a decrease in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression. Mauduit C, Gasnier F, Rey C, Chauvin MA, Stocco DM, Louisot P, Benahmed M.

(18) Growth Horm IGF Res 2001 Aug;11(4):250-60 Tissue-specific regulation of IGF-I and IGF-binding proteins in response to TNFalpha. Lang CH, Nystrom GJ, Frost RA.

(19) Exerc Immunol Rev 2001;7:18-31 Exercise and cytokines with particular focus on muscle-derived IL-6. Pedersen BK, Steensberg A, Fischer C, Keller C, Ostrowski K, Schjerling P.

(20) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001 Sep;281(3):E449-54 Catecholamines inhibit Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in rat skeletal muscle through beta(2)-adrenoceptors and cAMP. Navegantes LC, Resano NM, Migliorini RH, Kettelhut IC

(21) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002 Feb;87(2):630-4 Regulation of human adipocyte gene expression by thyroid hormone Viguerie N, Millet L, Avizou S, Vidal H, Larrouy D, Langin D.

(22) Metabolism 1987 Nov;36(11):1031-9 Alpha 2- and beta-adrenergic receptor binding and action in gluteal adipocytes from patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Richelsen B, Sorensen NS

(23) Br J Pharmacol 2000 Feb;129(3):448-56 Regulation of beta 1- and beta 3-adrenergic agonist-stimulated lipolytic response in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rat white adipocytes. Germack R, Starzec A, Perret GY

(24) Braz J Med Biol Res 1994 May;27(5):1269-72 Role of thyroid hormone in the control of growth hormone gene expression. Volpato CB, Nunes MT.

(25) Am J Physiol 1999 Aug;277(2 Pt 1):E370-9 Related articles, Links Low-dose T(3) improves the bed rest model of simulated weightlessness in men and women. Lovejoy JC, Smith SR, Zachwieja JJ, Bray GA, Windhauser MM, Wickersham PJ, Veldhuis JD, Tulley R, de la Bretonne JA.

(26) Life Sci 2002 Jul 19;71(9):1059-70 Evidence for a deficient pancreatic beta-cell response in a rat model of hyperthyroidism. Fukuchi M, Shimabukuro M, Shimajiri Y, Oshiro Y, Higa M, Akamine H, Komiya I, Takasu N.

(27) Diabetologia 2002 Jun;45(6):851-5 Thyroxine induces pancreatic beta cell apoptosis in rats.
Jorns A, Tiedge M, Lenzen S.

(28) Am J Physiol 1985 May;248(5 Pt 1):E593-601 Effect of thyroid hormone excess on action, secretion, and metabolism of insulin in humans.= Dimitriadis G, Baker B, Marsh H, Mandarino L, Rizza R, Bergman R, Haymond M, Gerich J

(29) Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2000 Jan;3(1):67-71 Effects of insulin on muscle tissue.
Wolfe RR.

(30) J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2001 Jan-Mar;76(1-5):31-42 Selective modulation of thyroid hormone receptor action. Baxter JD, Dillmann WH, West BL, Huber R, Furlow JD, Fletterick RJ, Webb P, Apriletti JW, Scanlan TS.

heavyiron
01-02-2010, 07:17 PM
The following abstract showed a higher leucine turnover in women than men but weightloss was similar in the men and women who used 50 MCG's T3 daily.

Low-dose T3 improves the bed rest model of simulated weightlessness in men and women

Jennifer C. Lovejoy1, Steven R. Smith1, Jeffrey J. Zachwieja1, George A. Bray1, Marlene M. Windhauser1, Peter J. Wickersham1, Johannes D. Veldhuis3, Richard Tulley1, and Jacques A. de la Bretonne2
1 Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, 2 Baton Rouge General Health Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808; and 3 University of Virginia Health Sciences Center and National Science Foundation Center for Biological Timing, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908


ABSTRACT


This study tested the hypothesis that low-dose 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) administration during prolonged bed rest improves the ground-based model of spaceflight. Nine men (36.4 ± 1.3 yr) and five women (34.2 ± 2.1 yr) were studied. After a 5-day inpatient baseline period, subjects were placed at total bed rest with 6° head-down tilt for 28 days followed by 5-day recovery. Fifty micrograms per day of T3 (n = 8) or placebo (n = 6) were given during bed rest. Serum T3 concentrations increased twofold, whereas thyroid-stimulating hormone was suppressed in treated subjects. T3-treated subjects showed significantly greater negative nitrogen balance and lost more weight (P = 0.02) and lean mass (P < 0.0001) than placebo subjects. Protein breakdown (whole body [13C]leucine kinetics) increased 31% in the T3 group but only 8% in the placebo group. T3-treated women experienced greater changes in leucine turnover than men, despite equivalent weight loss. Insulin sensitivity fell by 50% during bed rest in all subjects (P = 0.005), but growth hormone release and insulin release were largely unaffected. In conclusion, addition of low-dose T3 to the bed rest model of muscle unloading improves the ground-based simulation of spaceflight and unmasks several important gender differences.

homegrown
01-15-2010, 03:35 PM
What Would happen if you added ATP everyday from an outside source? (injectable ATP) What would this to to the effectivness of the T-3?

juggernaut
01-23-2010, 12:01 AM
If I were to go on a low dose cruise of sust270 every week and added t3, would I suffer muscle loss while on a keto diet similiar to the Palumbo keto?

heavyiron
01-23-2010, 12:20 AM
If I were to go on a low dose cruise of sust270 every week and added t3, would I suffer muscle loss while on a keto diet similiar to the Palumbo keto?
Not from the T3.

juggernaut
01-23-2010, 12:29 AM
so its okay then? I was also considering adding 1.5 x per lb of protein. good idea?

juggernaut
01-23-2010, 12:33 AM
posted this on another t3 site, but you know a fuck lot more!

I'm about 17% bodyfat at 243, ending in 4 weeks on a 14 week 500mg test cycle and going into a sust270mg cruise for a while. I just wanted to ramp up my fat loss with t3. I dont know if 50mcg i ok, because I am nervous about muscle wasting.
I'm not using any thermos right now, but I imagine by three months before my contest, I'll be using EC stack. my contest is in June or August-it all depends on how shredded I get.

Ryan Wacht
11-03-2010, 07:39 PM
posted this on another t3 site, but you know a fuck lot more!

I'm about 17% bodyfat at 243, ending in 4 weeks on a 14 week 500mg test cycle and going into a sust270mg cruise for a while. I just wanted to ramp up my fat loss with t3. I dont know if 50mcg i ok, because I am nervous about muscle wasting.
I'm not using any thermos right now, but I imagine by three months before my contest, I'll be using EC stack. my contest is in June or August-it all depends on how shredded I get.

So how did you end up doing in your show?

axioma
11-11-2010, 04:58 PM
I would be interested in a post about T4 use, either alone (converts to T3) or in conjunction with T3 as they relate to HGH dosages.

Socialdfan
03-17-2011, 04:39 PM
What should one feel during the use of T3? Clen makes my hands tremble in a bad way...

Mike Conley
03-17-2011, 04:49 PM
Won't T3 make your handles tremble a little bit but then it will subside after a bit? If it doesn't you just need to cut back the dose correct? Is it the same with Clen?

Sieve
03-17-2011, 04:52 PM
No shakes for t3 like at clen

Mike Conley
03-17-2011, 05:05 PM
Ok thanks! Just wondering. Cuz I know Clen you just reduce the dosage correct? Because the hands trembling if watched closely can actually let you know the max dosage you need for the most effectiveness correct?

Sieve
03-17-2011, 05:16 PM
I dont think thats a fair statement.
You will get shakes even if u start pretty low for the first 2-3-4 days , then the dose will be the lowest.
They will go away after a few days even if you increase.
Dont drink cofee or get any preworkout drinks and stimulants while taking clen.

Eat bananas or supplement with potasium.
It allso depletes the body of taurine. Get that as a supplement and take before bed ( its a neuro relaxant, you will sleep better)

Socialdfan
03-17-2011, 06:43 PM
Gonna bump this for "what should I feel or see while on T3?" . Thanks in advance.

NEEDTOBUILDMUSCLE.COM
03-18-2011, 09:22 PM
Gonna bump this for "what should I feel or see while on T3?" . Thanks in advance.
At first you will notice being warmer and your appetite getting larger. Its not a stim so u wont get jittery or nauseous.
Typically, any higher then 50 and you run the risk of burning more then just fat. Also 50mcg is about the highest you can or should maintain a steady dose. T3 (http://www.rxhealthdrugs.com/brand/278/46/cytomel-t3-liothyronine-sodium) has a unfair notorious record for being super dangerous. It really is not as long as you respect it. Your thyroid will recover. even for lengths of years at a time (not that I recommend this). It also is not a super fast worker. It's effects are wonderful but realized slowly over time. 3 weeks is not enough to do anything imho.

Socialdfan
03-19-2011, 07:28 AM
Ok NTBM, thank you for the response. Appreciated.

sassy69
05-24-2011, 11:02 PM
Testosterone Administration Preserves Protein Balance But Not Muscle Strength during 28 Days of Bed Rest

Jeffrey J. Zachwieja, Steven R. Smith, Jennifer C. Lovejoy, Jennifer C. Rood, Marlene M. Windhauser and George A. Bray

They gave one group of subjects 50 mcg/day of T3 plus placebo (P), or 50 mcg/day of T3 plus 200 mg/week of testosterone enanthate (T). As you can see, the T group gained LBM despite the T3, whereas the T3 group lost muscle mass:

"After 28 days of bed rest, the men in the P group lost an average of 3.9 kg of body weight (i.e. from 82.0 ± 7.1 to 78.1 ± 7.1 kg). Body weight in the T-treated subjects declined by only 1.0 kg (78.9 ± 4.9 to 77.9 ± 4.9 kg). This treatment x time interaction was statistically significant (P = 0.002). Lean body mass declined by 1.5 kg in the P group, whereas the T-treated subjects experienced nearly a 2-kg increase in lean mass (i.e. 1.7 ± 0.9 kg); again, the treatment x time interaction was statistically significant (P = 0.04)."

http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/84/1/207 (http://www.ironmagazineforums.com/redirect-to/?redirect=http%3A%2F%2Fjcem.endojournals.org%2Fcgi %2Fcontent%2Ffull%2F84%2F1%2F207)

RawLifter
05-29-2011, 07:09 PM
Testosterone Administration Preserves Protein Balance But Not Muscle Strength during 28 Days of Bed Rest

Jeffrey J. Zachwieja, Steven R. Smith, Jennifer C. Lovejoy, Jennifer C. Rood, Marlene M. Windhauser and George A. Bray

They gave one group of subjects 50 mcg/day of T3 plus placebo (P), or 50 mcg/day of T3 plus 200 mg/week of testosterone enanthate (T). As you can see, the T group gained LBM despite the T3, whereas the T3 group lost muscle mass:

"After 28 days of bed rest, the men in the P group lost an average of 3.9 kg of body weight (i.e. from 82.0 ± 7.1 to 78.1 ± 7.1 kg). Body weight in the T-treated subjects declined by only 1.0 kg (78.9 ± 4.9 to 77.9 ± 4.9 kg). This treatment x time interaction was statistically significant (P = 0.002). Lean body mass declined by 1.5 kg in the P group, whereas the T-treated subjects experienced nearly a 2-kg increase in lean mass (i.e. 1.7 ± 0.9 kg); again, the treatment x time interaction was statistically significant (P = 0.04)."

http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/84/1/207 (http://www.ironmagazineforums.com/redirect-to/?redirect=http%3A%2F%2Fjcem.endojournals.org%2Fcgi %2Fcontent%2Ffull%2F84%2F1%2F207)

So much contradicting info out there...this is a good read. Thanks

Bencher
05-29-2011, 10:08 PM
With it stating t3 and hgh are not a good combo, how would the combo of t3/ghrp-2/cjc-1295/hgh be for leaning and maintaining muscle? And would bringing in clen be of benefit? Main goal is leaning.

RawLifter
06-13-2011, 08:27 AM
I'm just wondering how long one can stay on but be able to recover fully on T3. I was supposed to compete and was about 8 weeks into my prep diet/cycle then we found out we had a wedding in Toronto to go to that contest weekend. Doesn't really bother me, just more time to grow and i'll compete early next season. Anyway, i was on some T3 @ 50mcg (as well a low dose tren/test). Even after finding out i wouldn't be competing i decided to stay on the T3 and the cycle while INCREASING cals. I am eating a lot of food and staying lean. My question is, what is the recommended amount of time I can stay on T3 @ 50mcg/day. Right now i am 4 weeks in to taking the T3. I just love the fact of being able to eat more, feeding the body and still staying lean. Just a side note that I am still doing a good amount of light cardio a day, staying active as well since I find this helps keep the fat away.

I'm the type of guy who'd rather work hard and bust my ass in the gym and with cardio and be able to eat more cals.

adpolice
06-16-2011, 05:39 PM
I'm just wondering how long one can stay on but be able to recover fully on T3. I was supposed to compete and was about 8 weeks into my prep diet/cycle then we found out we had a wedding in Toronto to go to that contest weekend. Doesn't really bother me, just more time to grow and i'll compete early next season. Anyway, i was on some T3 @ 50mcg (as well a low dose tren/test). Even after finding out i wouldn't be competing i decided to stay on the T3 and the cycle while INCREASING cals. I am eating a lot of food and staying lean. My question is, what is the recommended amount of time I can stay on T3 @ 50mcg/day. Right now i am 4 weeks in to taking the T3. I just love the fact of being able to eat more, feeding the body and still staying lean. Just a side note that I am still doing a good amount of light cardio a day, staying active as well since I find this helps keep the fat away.

I'm the type of guy who'd rather work hard and bust my ass in the gym and with cardio and be able to eat more cals.

I'm a slave to t3 for the same reason..:yep:

daywalker72
06-17-2011, 12:04 AM
we need some t4 info

DieselXT
06-18-2011, 08:11 AM
......

big nut
06-18-2011, 07:49 PM
what is the typical pre-contest dosage for T3? i've heard 50-100 mcg.

daywalker72
06-18-2011, 07:55 PM
what is the typical pre-contest dosage for T3? i've heard 50-100 mcg.

everybody has a different opinion. i would start out at 50 and see how that does then slowly work up.

big nut
06-19-2011, 11:40 AM
everybody has a different opinion. i would start out at 50 and see how that does then slowly work up.
thanks for your input.

heres some T4 info...
Medical uses
Levothyroxine is typically used to treat hypothyroidism.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levothyroxine#cite_note-pmid18662921-0) It may also be used to treat goiter via its ability to lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyroid-stimulating_hormone) (TSH), a hormone that is considered goiter-inducing.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levothyroxine#cite_note-pmid16507633-1)[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levothyroxine#cite_note-Dietlein_2007-2)
[edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Levothyroxine&action=edit&section=2)] Adverse effects

Dosing must be carefully controlled to achieve TSH (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyroid-stimulating_hormone) levels within the normal reference range. Long term suppression of TSH values below normal values will frequently cause cardiac side effects and contribute to decreases in bone mineral density (high TSH levels are also well known to contribute to osteoporosis).[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levothyroxine#cite_note-Frilling_2004-3)
Patients prescribed too high of a dose of levothyroxine may experience effects which mimic hyperthyroidism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperthyroidism#Signs_and_symptoms).[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levothyroxine#cite_note-RxList-4) Overdose can result in heart palpitations, abdominal pain, nausea, anxiousness, confusion, agitation, insomnia, weight loss, and increased appetite.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levothyroxine#cite_note-Toxicity-5) Allergic reactions to the drug are characterized by symptoms such as difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, or swelling of the face and tongue. Acute overdose may cause fever, hypoglycemia, heart failure, coma and unrecognized adrenal insufficiency.
Acute massive overdose may be life-threatening; treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. Massive overdose may require beta-blockers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-blockers) for increased sympathomimetic activity.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levothyroxine#cite_note-RxList-4)
The effects of overdosing appear 6 hours to 11 days after ingestion.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levothyroxine#cite_note-Toxicity-5)
[edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Levothyroxine&action=edit&section=3)] Interactions

There are also foods and other substances that can interfere with absorption of thyroxine replacement. People ought to avoid taking calcium and iron supplements within 4 hours,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levothyroxine#cite_note-6) as well as soy products within 3 hours of the medication, as these can reduce absorption of the drug. Grapefruit juice may delay the absorption of levothyroxine, but it is not believed to have a significant effect on bioavailability.[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levothyroxine#cite_note-pmid16120075-7) Other substances that reduce absorption are aluminium and magnesium containing antacids, simethicone or sucralfate, cholestyramine, colestipol, Kayexalate. A study of eight women suggested that coffee may interfere with the intestinal absorption of levothyroxine, though at a level less than eating bran.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levothyroxine#cite_note-Benvenga-8) Different substances cause other adverse effects that may be severe. Ketamine may cause hypertension and tachycardia and tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants increase its toxicity. On the other hand lithium can cause hyperthyroidism (but most often hypothyroidism) by affecting iodine metabolism of the thyroid itself and thus inhibits synthetic levothyroxine as well.
[edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Levothyroxine&action=edit&section=4)] Dosage

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/45/007815180lg_Generic_Levothyroxine.jpg/220px-007815180lg_Generic_Levothyroxine.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:007815180lg_Generic_Levothyroxine.jpg)http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.17/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:007815180lg_Generic_Levothyroxine.jpg)
Generic Levothyroxine, 25 MCG Oral Tablet


Dosages vary according to the age groups and the individual condition of the patient, body weight and compliance to the medication and diet. Monitoring of the patient's condition and adjustment of the dosage is periodical and necessary. Levothyroxine is taken on an empty stomach approximately half an hour to an hour before meals.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levothyroxine#cite_note-RxList-4)
[edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Levothyroxine&action=edit&section=5)] Brand names

Common brand names include Thyrax, Euthyrox, Levaxin, L-thyroxine, Eltroxin and Thyrax Duotab in Europe; Thyrox in South Asia; Eutirox, Tirosint, Levoxyl and Synthroid in North America. There are also numerous generic versions.

booze
08-28-2011, 06:44 AM
we need some t4 info

from what ive ready, if your thyroid is healthy T4 isnt going to make a difference. T3 is where its at.

caribeman
09-01-2011, 09:22 AM
what has worked better for you guys? Liquid or pills? Pills are not as easy to get as liquid now a days. Want to hear from you guy on this.

daywalker72
09-01-2011, 09:30 AM
what has worked better for you guys? Liquid or pills? Pills are not as easy to get as liquid now a days. Want to hear from you guy on this.

pills are more accurate when it comes to dosing. the liquid stuff works just fine though.

RawLifter
09-02-2011, 09:22 AM
I prefer cap/tab form and I have access to both including pharma grade stuff but the difference between caps/tabs and liquids is $$$$. I'd still go for pill form over liquid when it comes to T3 though because that is one thing i don't want screw with.

caribeman
09-06-2011, 12:05 PM
I prefer cap/tab form and I have access to both including pharma grade stuff but the difference between caps/tabs and liquids is $$$$. I'd still go for pill form over liquid when it comes to T3 though because that is one thing i don't want screw with.


RL, I agree to tab form but all I've checked they are out so liquid will be 2nd choice.

Hoss06
02-07-2012, 02:20 PM
Sub